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What, When, Where, How, Who?


Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:

One view of space is that it is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move. In common usage, a dimension (Latin, "measured out") is a parameter or measurement used to describe some relevant characteristic of an object. In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. Latin (lingua latīna, pronounced [laˈtiːna]) is an ancient Indo-European language that was spoken in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In mathematics, statistics, and the mathematical sciences, a parameter (L: auxiliary measure) is a quantity that defines certain characteristics of systems or functions. Measurement means the dimension, quantity, or capacity determined by measuring: the measurements of a room. Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).[1][2] An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. In ontology, the study of being, being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendentally or immanently. Pronounced means spoken; voiced. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects,[1] including most of the major languages of Europe, the northern Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and much of Central Asia. The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. A republic is a state or country that is not led by a hereditary monarch,[1][2] where the people of that state or country (or at least a part of that people)[3] have impact on its government,[4] and that is usually indicated as a republic.[5] Mathematics (colloquially, maths or math) is the body of knowledge centered on such concepts as quantity, structure, space, and change, and also the academic discipline that studies them. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Science (from the Latin scientia, 'knowledge'), in the broadest sense, refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet. The mathematical concept of a function expresses dependence between two quantities, one of which is given (the independent variable, argument of the function, or its "input") and the other produced (the dependent variable, value of the function, or "output"). The letter A is the first letter in the Latin alphabet. A room, in architecture, is any distinguishable space within a structure. Ethics (via Latin ethica from the Ancient Greek ἠθική [φιλοσοφία] "moral philosophy", from the adjective of ἤθος ēthos "custom, habit"), a major branch of philosophy, encompasses right conduct and good life. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science, traditionally, cosmology and ontology. Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.[1] Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. Distinct means distinguishable to the eye or mind as discrete : separate <a distinct cultural group> <teaching as distinct from research>. Existence is what is asserted by the verb 'exist' (derived from the Latin word 'existere', meaning to appear or emerge or stand out). Ontology is a study of conceptions of reality and the nature of being. Transcendental means concerned with the a priori or intuitive basis of knowledge as independent of experience. Immanently means existing or remaining within; inherent: believed in a God immanent in humans. A family is a domestic or social group. A language is a system of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the rules used to manipulate them. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Indian or Indians usually refers to the inhabitants of India or, alternatively and completely differently, American Indians. A subcontinent is a small part of a continent. South means the direction along a meridian 90° clockwise from east; the direction to the right of sunrise. Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent. Iran, (Persian: ايران,[ʔiˈɾɒn] ĭrănˈ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ايران, pronounced [dʒomhuɾije ʔeslɒmije ʔiɾɒn]), formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia. In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. Southwest Abbr. SW The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due south and due west, or 135° west of due north. Central means situated at, in, or near the center: the central states. Ancient means having had an existence of many years. Civilization or civilisation is a kind of human society or culture; specifically, a civilization is usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the process of state formation, the practice of agriculture and settlement in cities. An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area (such as a nation-state, though the word may also denote a sub-national state). In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. The word monarch derives from Greek monos archein, meaning "one ruler," which referred to an absolute ruler in ancient Greece. Quantity is a kind of which exists as magnitude or multitude. Structure is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. One can think of change in a very general way as alteration. Data refers to a collection of organized information, usually the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises. Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Systematic means presented or formulated as a coherent body of ideas or principles <systematic thought>. Practice (learning method), a method of learning by repetition. An alphabet is a standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in the past. Independent means Free from the influence, guidance, or control of another or others; self-reliant: an independent mind. In mathematics, a variable often represents an "unknown" quantity that has the potential to change; in computer science, it represents a place where a quantity can be stored. Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures. Greek (ελληνική γλώσσα IPA: [eliniˈkʲi ˈɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [eliniˈka] — "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,400 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjective's subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. Habit (psychology), an acquired pattern of behavior that often occurs automatically. Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογος (logos) word, reason, plan) is the quantitative (usually mathematical) study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it. A classical language, is a language with a literature that is "classical"—ie, "it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature."[1] (George L. Hart of UC Berkeley). Logos (Greek λόγος) is an important term in philosophy, analytical psychology, rhetoric and religion. Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. Scientific demonstration, a scientific experiment carried out for the purposes of illustrating principles, rather than for hypothesis testing or knowledge gathering. Distinguishable means capable of being perceived as different or distinct; "only the shine of their metal was distinguishable in the gloom"; "a project distinguishable into four stages of progress"; "distinguishable differences between the twins" . Separate means to set or keep apart : disconnect, sever. Reality, in everyday usage, means "the state of things as they actually exist." [1] [2] . Believe means to have confidence in the truth, the existence, or the reliability of something, although without absolute proof that one is right in doing so: Only if one believes in something can one act purposefully. God most commonly refers to the deity worshiped by followers of monotheistic and monolatrist religions, whom they believe to be the creator and overseer of the universe.[1] Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man" or "knowing man") in the family Hominidae (the great apes).[1][2] Symbols are objects, characters, or other concrete representations of ideas, concepts, or other abstractions. Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. A continent is one of several large landmasses on Earth. Earth (pronounced /ˈɝːθ/[5]) is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, in both diameter and mass. India (Hindi: भारत Bhārat; see also other names), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a sovereign nation in South Asia. The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. Persian (local names: فارسی [fɒɾˈsi], Fārsi or پارسی [pɒɾˈsi], Pārsi; see Nomenclature) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Persian Gulf states. Help means to give assistance to; aid: I helped her find the book. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Islam (Arabic: الإسلام; al-'islām ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. The Persian Empire (Persian: امپراتوری ایران) was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia, western South Asia and the Caucasus. Eurasia is a large landmass covering roughly 53,990,000 km² which is 10.6 percent of the surface of the Earth. Geology (from Greek: γη, ge, "earth"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. to talk about the earth) is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth. highlands A mountainous or hilly section of a country. A society is a grouping of individuals which is characterized by common interests and may have distinctive culture and institutions. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate,") generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance. Complex means consisting of interconnected or interwoven parts; composite. Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing/harvesting of plants, animals and other life forms. City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. Form (Lat. forma Eng. mould), refers to the external three-dimensional outline, appearance or configuration of some thing - in contrast to the matter or content or substance of which it is composed (compare with shape). A government is "the organization, that is the governing authority of a political unit,"[1] "the ruling power in a political society,"[2] and the apparatus through which a governing body functions and exercises authority.[3] Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Political power, power held by a person or group in a country's political system. Voluntary association, a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to accomplish a purpose. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to complete control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface, typically a region bounded by a closed curve. nation is a form of self-defined cultural and social community. Sub- is a prefix derived from Latin, meaning "under", "below", or "less than". National means of, relating to, or belonging to a nation as an organized whole: a national anthem. Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena.[1] International or internationally most often describes interaction between nations, or encompassing two or more nations, constituting a group or association having members in two or more nations, or generally reaching beyond national boundaries. Division is the act or process of dividing. A territory (from the word 'terra', meaning 'land') is a defined area (including land and waters),considered to be a possession of a person, organization, institution, animal, state or country subdivision. Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα Elláda, IPA: [ɛˈlaða], or Ελλάς Ellás, [ɛˈlas]), officially the Hellenic Republic [Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (ɛliniˈkʲi ðimokraˈtia)],[3] is a country in Southeastern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. Experience as a general concept comprises knowledge of or skill in or observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event. Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e.g. humans), which senses and assimilates the knowledge of a phenomenon in its framework of previous knowledge and ideas. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, "of (or from) trying") is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. In discourse, a premise (also "premiss" in British usage) is a claim that is a reason (or element of a set of reasons) for, or objection against, some other claim.



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