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Umbrella Term

Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:

An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. For example, cryptology is an umbrella term that encompasses cryptography and cryptanalysis, among other fields. Similarly, an "umbrella organization" can be an organization which is a central and coordinating body representing a number of smaller, separate bodies. A set S1 is a superset of another set S2 if every element in S2 is in S1. S1 may have elements which are not in S2. Grouping is form of hierarchical knowledge representation, similar to mind mapping, concept mapping and argument mapping, all of which need to observe at least some of the principles of grouping. The principles of grouping include MECE (mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive), levels of abstraction and horizontal and vertical congruence. In linguistics, a hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic range is included within that of another word. For example, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, and crimson are all hyponyms of red (their hypernym), which is, in turn, a hyponym of colour. According to Fromkin and Rodman,[1] hyponyms are a set of related words whose meaning are specific instances of a more general word (so, for example, red, white, blue, etc., are hyponyms of colour). Hyponymy is thus the relationship between a general term such as polygon and specific instances of it, such as triangle. Computer science often terms this relationship an is-a relationship. For example, Red is a colour can be used to describe the hyponymic relationship between red and colour. The term Hypernym denotes a word, usually somewhat vague and broad in meaning, that other more specific words fall under or are fairly encompassed by. For example, vehicle denotes all the things that are separately denoted by the words train, chariot, dogsled, airplane, and automobile and is therefore a hypernym of each of those words. Conversely, the words train, chariot etc. are hyponyms of vehicle. Hypernymy is the semantic relation in which one word is the hypernym of another. Hypernymy, the relation words stand in when their extensions stand in the relation of class to subclass, should not be confused with holonymy which is the relation words stand in when the things that they denote stand in the relation of whole to part. A similar warning applies to hyponymy and meronymy. Science concerned with data communication and storage in secure and usually secret form. It encompasses both cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρύπτω krýpto "hidden" and the verb γράφω gráfo "to write" or λέγειν legein "to speak")[1] is the practice and study of hiding information. In modern times, cryptography is considered to be a branch of both mathematics and computer science, and is affiliated closely with information theory, computer security, and engineering. Cryptography is used in applications present in technologically advanced societies; examples include the security of ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce, which all depend on cryptography. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. Typically, this involves finding a secret key. In non-technical language, this is the practice of codebreaking or cracking the code, although these phrases also have a specialised technical meaning (see code). "Cryptanalysis" is also used to refer to any attempt to circumvent the security of other types of cryptographic algorithms and protocols in general, and not just encryption. However, cryptanalysis usually excludes methods of attack that do not primarily target weaknesses in the actual cryptography, such as bribery, physical coercion, burglary, keystroke logging, and social engineering, although these types of attack are an important concern and are often more effective than traditional cryptanalysis. Even though the goal has been the same, the methods and techniques of cryptanalysis have changed drastically through the history of cryptography, adapting to increasing cryptographic complexity, ranging from the pen-and-paper methods of the past, through machines like Enigma in World War II, to the computer-based schemes of the present. The results of cryptanalysis have also changed — it is no longer possible to have unlimited success in codebreaking, and there is a hierarchical classification of what constitutes a rare practical attack. In the mid-1970s, a new class of cryptography was introduced: asymmetric cryptography. Methods for breaking these cryptosystems are typically radically different from before, and usually involve solving carefully-constructed problems in pure mathematics, the best-known being integer factorization. An umbrella or parasol (sometimes colloquially, gamp, brolly, or bumbershoot) is a canopy designed to protect against precipitation or sunlight. The term parasol usually refers to an item designed to protect from the sun, and umbrella refers to a device more suited to protect from rain. Often the difference is the material; some parasols are not waterproof. Parasols are often meant to be fixed to one point and often used with patio tables or other outdoor furniture, or on the beach for shelter from the sun. Umbrellas are almost exclusively hand-held portable devices; however, parasols can also be hand-held. The word umbrella is from the Latin word umbra, which in turn derives from the Ancient Greek ómvros (όμβρος). Its meaning is shade or shadow. Brolly is a slang word for umbrella, used often in Britain, New Zealand and Australia. Bumbershoot is a fanciful Americanism from the late 19th century[2]. An organization (or organisation — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word ὄργανον (organon) meaning tool. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways. In the social sciences, organizations are studied by researchers from several disciplines, the most common of which are sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. The broad area is commonly referred to as organizational studies, organizational behavior or organization analysis. Therefore, a number of different theories and perspectives exist, some of which are compatible, and others that are competing. Organization – process-related: an entity is being (re-)organized (organization as task or action). Organization – functional: organization as a function of how entities like businesses or state authorities are used (organization as a permanent structure). Organization – institutional: an entity is an organization (organization as an actual purposeful structure within a social context). A set is a collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. The study of the structure of sets, set theory, is rich and ongoing. Having only been invented at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics education, being introduced from primary school in many countries.[citation needed] Set theory can be viewed as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived. In philosophy, sets are ordinarily considered to be abstract objects [1][2] [3] [4] the physical tokens of which are, for instance; three cups on a table when spoken of together as "the cups", or the chalk lines on a board in the form of the opening and closing curly bracket symbols along with any other symbols in between the two bracket symbols. However, proponents of mathematical realism including Penelope Maddy have argued that sets are concrete objects. Mind collectively refers to the aspects of intellect and consciousness manifested as combinations of thought, perception, memory, emotion, will and imagination; mind is the stream of consciousness. It includes all of the brain's conscious processes. This denotation sometimes includes, in certain contexts, the working of the human unconscious or the conscious thoughts of animals. "Mind" is often used to refer especially to the thought processes of reason. There are many theories of the mind and its function. The earliest recorded works on the mind are by Zarathushtra, the Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, Adi Shankara and other ancient Greek, Indian and Islamic philosophers. Pre-scientific theories, based in theology, concentrated on the relationship between the mind and the soul, the supernatural, divine or god-given essence of the person. Modern theories, based on scientific understanding of the brain, theorise that the mind is a phenomenon of the brain and is synonymous with consciousness. The question of which human attributes make up the mind is also much debated. Some argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind: particularly reason and memory. In this view the emotions - love, hate, fear, joy - are more "primitive" or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind. Others argue that the rational and the emotional sides of the human person cannot be separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, and that they should all be considered as part of the individual mind. In popular usage mind is frequently synonymous with thought: It is that private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads." Thus we "make up our minds," "change our minds" or are "of two minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. No-one else can "know our mind." They can only know what we communicate. Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behaviour onto brain regions (see fMRI). Brain Mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of Brain Mapping. As the term is used in mainstream cognitive science and philosophy of mind, a concept or conception is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in a language or symbology. In logic, an argument is a set of one or more declarative sentences known as the premises (singular is also spelt "premiss" in British English), along with another declarative sentence known as the conclusion. A deductive argument asserts that the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises; an inductive argument asserts that the truth of the conclusion is supported by the premises. Each premise and the conclusion are only either true or false, not ambiguous. The sentences comprising an argument are referred to as being either true or false, not as being valid or invalid; arguments are referred to as being valid or invalid, not as being true or false. Some authors refer to the premises and conclusion using the terms declarative sentence, statement, proposition, sentence, or even indicative utterance. The reason for the variety is concern about the ontological significance of the terms, proposition in particular. Whichever term is used, each premise and the conclusion must be capable of being true or false and nothing else: they are truthbearers. The MECE principle, mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, is a grouping principle which says that data in a group should be divided into subgroups that comprehensively represent that group (no gaps) without overlapping. This is desirable for the purpose of analysis, because it avoids both the problem of double counting and the risk of overlooking information. The MECE principle is useful in the business mapping process. If information can be arranged exhaustively and without double counting in each level of the hierarchy, the way of arrangement is ideal. Examples of MECE categorization would include categorizing people by year of birth (assuming all years are known). A non-MECE example would be categorization by nationality, because nationalities are neither mutually exclusive (some people have dual nationality) nor collectively exhaustive (some people have none).

lev·el    Audio Help   /ˈlɛvəl/ Pronunciation Key - Show Spelled Pronunciation[lev-uhl] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation adjective, noun, verb, -eled, -el·ing or (especially British) -elled, -el·ling, adverb
1. having no part higher than another; having a flat or even surface.
2. being in a plane parallel to the plane of the horizon; horizontal.
3. equal, as one thing with another or two or more things with one another.
4. even, equable, or uniform.
5. filled to a height even with the rim of a container: a level teaspoon of salt.
6. mentally well-balanced; sensible; rational: to keep a level head in a crisis.
7. a device used for determining or adjusting something to a horizontal surface.
8. Surveying.
a. Also called surveyor's level. an instrument for observing levels, having a sighting device, usually telescopic, and capable of being made precisely horizontal.
b. an observation made with this instrument.
c. spirit level.
9. an imaginary line or surface everywhere at right angles to the plumb line.
10. the horizontal line or plane in which anything is situated, with regard to its elevation.
11. a horizontal position or condition.
12. an extent of land approximately horizontal and unbroken by irregularities.
13. a level or flat surface.
14. a position with respect to a given or specified height: The water rose to a level of 30 feet.
15. a position or plane in a graded scale of values; status; rank: His acting was on the level of an amateur. They associated only with those on their own economic level.
16. an extent, measure, or degree of intensity, achievement, etc.: a high level of sound; an average level of writing skill.
17. Linguistics. a major subdivision of linguistic structure, as phonology, morphology, or syntax, often viewed as hierarchically ordered. Compare component (def. 6a), stratum (def. 8).
18. Mining. the interconnected horizontal mine workings at a particular elevation or depth: There had been a cave-in on the 1500-foot level.
–verb (used with object)
19. to make (a surface) level, even, or flat: to level ground before building.
20. to raise or lower to a particular level or position; to make horizontal.
21. to bring (something) to the level of the ground: They leveled the trees to make way for the new highway.
22. Informal. to knock down (a person): He leveled his opponent with one blow.
23. to make equal, as in status or condition.
24. to make even or uniform, as coloring.
25. Historical Linguistics. (of the alternative forms of a paradigm) to reduce in number or regularize: Old English “him” (dative) and “hine” (accusative) have been leveled to Modern English “him.”
26. to aim or point (a weapon, criticism, etc.) at a mark or objective: He leveled his criticism at the college as a whole.
27. Surveying. to find the relative elevation of different points in (land), as with a level.
–verb (used without object)
28. to bring things or persons to a common level.
29. to aim a weapon, criticism, etc., at a mark or objective.
30. Surveying.
a. to take a level.
b. to use a leveling instrument.
31. to speak truthfully and openly (often fol. by with): You're not leveling with me about your trip to Chicago.
32. Obsolete. to direct the mind, purpose, etc., at something.
33. Obsolete. in a level, direct, or even way or line.



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