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Dana Nickel 2 Tone Candelabrum by Apex
APE-7067-77SG 5 Light: $179.00APE-7069-79SG 3 Light: $145.00Decorative candle holder/base is 18 inches high. Nickel 2 tone silver and gold.
Price: 179.00

Atlantis Dessert / Appetizer Tray
Stainless steel, 3-tiered tray is 24" tall. Perfect for catering, buffets, desserts, etc. Bottom tray measures 18" wide. Middle is 12" and 10" at the top.
Price: 175.00

Bun Cabinet by APW Wyott
Ideal way to keep hot dog buns near the Roller Grill for self-serve of clerk-served operations. New fresh-grilled graphics direct consumers to roller grill products. New pass-thru door design allows a clerk to load buns from behind the counter and to have greater access to clean crumbs out of cabinet.
Price: 195.00

Hot Dog Broiler / Bun Warmer
APW Wyott Hot Dog Broiler. Designed to deliver great tasting hot dogs. Heating system can be turned to Broiling temperatures for cooking hot dogs in less than 15 minutes and turned down to NSF safe holding temperatures for serving customers. Broiler holds 48 hot dogs in broiling racks. Bun warmer holds 36 buns.
Price: 795.00

Hot Dog Steamer - Mr. Frank
APW Wyott hot dog steamer. Heating system can cook hot dogs in less than 20 minutes and holds them at safe NSF temperatures for serving customers. Steamer holds 150 hot dogs and 60 buns. Divided steaming pan allows control of steam level for hot dogs vs. buns.
Price: 425.00

Countertop Cooking Line Gas Charrock Broiler
Standard Features15-1/2"Hx25"DFront bullnose construction.Protective knob guards for safer operation.Stainless steel top rim, backsplash and grease tray.Heavy-duty plated 4 inch adjustable legs.Front removable access panels.Rear gas connections use 1/2 inch NPT pipe.Each cast-iron top grate is 5-39/64 inches in width allowing for easy handling.Grease drawer is full depth of broiler.Cast-iron rockholder under grates are easy to remove and clean.Coated steel baffles beneath burner(s) reflect heat upward.APW-GCRB-18H 18 Inch Wide CharRock 60,000BTUAPW-GCB-18H 18 Inch Wide Radiant 60,000BTUAPW-GCRB-24H 24 Inch Wide CharRock 80,000BTUbr>APW-GCB-24H 24 Inch Wide Radiant 80,000BTUAPW-GCRB-36H 36 Inch Wide CharRock, 2 S Burners - One 60,000, total 120,000BTU/hrAPW-GCB-36H 36 Inch Wide Radiant, 2 S Burners - One 60,000, total 120,000BTU/hrAPW-GCRB-4
Price: 729.00

Hot Dog Roller with Non-Stick Rollers
Most advanced heating system allows two zone cooking for maximum control. Cook on high on the back and hold at NSF safe temperatures in the front. TRU-Turn Roller system has durable, easy to clean surface that provides superior roll-ability of hot dogs, sausages, egg rolls, and more. Rollers are synchronized to roll simultaneously with each other, avoiding slippage. Available with or without optional self serve sneeze guard.
Price: 835.00

Hot Dog Roller with Chrome Rollers
Two zone heat system quickly reaches grilling temperatures and has fast recovery for surges in demand. Easy to operate and maintain...plus it is the easiest roller grill to clean. Available with or without optional self serve sneeze guard.
Price: 819.00

Countertop Warmer
12" x 20" Warmer. 1200 Watts. Overall dimensions: 9" H x 14-1/2"W x 22-1/2"D. 22 qt. capacity. All stainless steel well pan and housing. Heavy duty wiring. Bottom insulated. Accepts standard steamtable pans and accessories.
Price: 190.00

American Range Vertical Broiler AVB-1
20"W x 24"D x 34"H. 1 Burner. 20,000 BTU.
Price: 1489.00

American Range Vertical Broiler AVB-2
20"W x 24"D x 34"H. 2 Burners. 40,000 BTU.
Price: 1819.00

American Range Vertical Gyro Broiler AVCB-2
20"W x 24"D x 41"H. 2 Burners. 40,000 BTU. Heavy gauge frame construction. All stainless steel front, sides and top. Compact design for counter installation. NSF listed. One year limited warranty on parts and labor. Sturdy skewer to hold up to 30lbs of meat. 15" diameter pan at the bottom, slide adjustment front to back. High efficiency infrared burners, each rated at 25000 BTU/hr. Manual valve control for each burner. Heavy duty powerful gear motor for smooth and even rotation. Toggle switch to turn gear motor on. 6 position adjustment of skewer.
Price: 2225.00

Astra 2000 Fully Automatic Espresso / Cappuccino Machine
The reliable fully automatic machine that anyone can operate. A simple touch of a button creates the perfect drink every time. Capable of producing 7 different drinks at the touch of a button, including espresso, cappuccino, latte, gourmet coffee, and decaffeinated drinks. Can product 180 cups per hour. 4.2 liter, nickel plated boiler. 1/4" flare drain hose supplied as water hookup. 220V. Easily adjustable flavor profiles suit any customer base. It automatically grinds, tamps and extracts the perfect shot from whole coffee beans. Produces all milk drinks with only fresh milk. The steam wand, equipped with a temperature sensor, automatically shuts off when the desired milk temperature is reached. This highly advanced feature allows anyone to produce perfectly steamed milk with minimal training. Programmed to run 24 hours a day. It is also capable of being run like a traditional machine simply by flipping a switch. Modular construction and Amer
Price: 7315.00

Astra Coffee Grinder AGA-004
Automatic espresso grinder with long lasting titanium blades. 445 Watts, 4 amps, 1/2 H.P. 27" x 22" x 7.0". Hopper capacity is 2.2 lbs. Contact us for discount pricing.
Price: 715.00

Astra Pro Espresso / Cappuccino Machine
Astra Pro is manufactured with the same modular, professional, commercial components as the rest of the Astra line, including the same brewing mechanism and thermal circulation. Over 2.6 liter boiler with 1,300 watt heating element in a 100% polished stainless frame makes it extremely easy to enjoy a professional quality product at home or office. ETL Listed to NSF-4, UL 197, and CSA C22.2 No 109. Modular Construction makes the Astra the easiest and most reliable machine to install, maintain and service.Self-tamping brewing mechanism (the same brew group as the commercial line). Stainless boiler with manufacturer's warranty. Automatic high-temperature switch with reset. Automatic shut-off if water does not reach machine - prevents potential damage to heating element. Automatic water fill. Internal oversized power relay for added safety. All American made, nickel plated brass flare fittings eliminate future costly service. Stainless Steel steam wand. Brewing systems with thermo-circula
Price: 1438.00

Astra Gourmet Auto Pourover Espresso Machine
AST-GAP-022-SIL Silvertone Panels (pictured)AST-GAP-022-BK Black PanelsAST-GAP-022-RED Red PanelsAST-GAP-022-COP Coppertone PanelsAST-GAP-022-BL Blue PanelsGourmet Automatic Pourover machine is equipped with an optional self-contained tank and deep drain tray making it the ideal portable machine for either residential or catering services. Standard equipped with one steam and one hot water valve. Just plus in and serve! Pictured with silvertone panels, available in several other colors. A professional, stainless steel espresso machine for gourmets. Despite its compact size, nothing has been neglected to compromise quality. With a 4.2 liter boiler, an internal full sized rotary vane pump and motor, all of its components are the same as those found in the larger Astra machines. This model's nostalgic look, and quality of construction, make it a true workhorse. Astra machines operate with ground coffee and / or pods interchangeably - n
Price: 2874.00

Astra Mega I Commercial Automatic Espresso Machine
AST-M1-011-110V 110VAST-M1-011-220V ~ 220VA real full size single group machine available with one or two steam wands with all the features of the Mega II and III. The best machine in the world because of its modularity and power. In fact, it is the only espresso machine of tis kind that can be upgraded to become a compact two group with an available conversion kit. Standard with one steam wand and one hot water wand. It is available in 110 or 220V. Self-tamping brewing machines. Contact us for discount pricing.
Price: 3235.00

Astra Mega I Semi-Automatic Compact Espresso Machine
AST-M1S-016-110V 110 VoltAST-M1S-016-220V 220 VoltA real full size single group machine. Standard with one steam wand and one hot water wand. Shown in standard black frame with optional stainless steel panels. The best machine in the world because of its modularity and power. In fact, it is the only espresso machine of its kind that can be upgraded to become a compact two group with an available conversion kit. One brewing head. It is available in 110 or 220V. Contact us for discount pricing.
Price: 2635.00

  United States Presidential Inauguration

The swearing-in of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The United States Constitution mandates that the President make the following oath or affirmation before he or she can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.

The newly elected or re-elected President traditionally adds "so help me God" to the constitutionally mandated statement.

The swearing-in traditionally takes place at noon on Inauguration Day at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., with the Chief Justice of the United States administering the oath. From the presidency of Martin Van Buren through Jimmy Carter, the ceremony took place on the Capitol's East Portico. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol's West Front. The inauguration of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. Until 1937, Inauguration Day was March 4. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term).

Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed a regularly-scheduled Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. Eight presidential deaths and Richard Nixon's resignation have forced the oath of office to be administered by other officials on other days. The War of 1812 and World War II forced two swearings-in to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

From 1789 through 2005, the swearing-in has been administered by 14 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, three federal judges, two New York state judges, and one notary public. Though anyone legally authorized to administer an oath may swear in a President, to date the only person to do so who was not a judge was John C. Coolidge, Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary whose home the then-Vice President was visiting in 1923 when he learned of the death of President Warren G. Harding.



Inaugural ceremonies

The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, in New York City. Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1937, the day of inauguration was changed by the Twentieth Amendment from March 4 to noon on January 20, beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in 1937. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which did not officially become the federal capital until that year.[1]

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America and is the highest political official in the United States by influence and recognition. The President leads the executive branch of the federal government; his role is to execute the law as created by the Congress, in accordance with the Constitution of the United States. Article II of the Constitution establishes the President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and enumerates powers specifically granted to the President, including the power to sign into law or veto bills passed by both houses of the Congress. The President also has the power to create a cabinet of advisers and to grant pardons or reprieves. Finally, with the "advice and consent" of the Senate, the President is empowered to make treaties and appoint federal officers, ambassadors and federal judges, including Justices of the Supreme Court. As with officials in the other branches of the federal government, the Constitution restrains the President with a set of checks and balances designed to prevent any individual or group from taking absolute power.




The Treaty of Paris in 1783 left the United States independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure. The Second Continental Congress had drawn up Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent confederation, but granting to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced. In part, this reflected the anti-monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to replace the British King.

However, during the economic depression due to the collapse of the continental dollar following the Revolution, the viability of the American government was threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability of the Continental Congress to redeem the public obligations incurred during the war. The Congress also appeared unable to become a forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce and economic development. In response a Constitutional Convention was convened, ostensibly to reform the Articles of Confederation, but that subsequently began to draft a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the office of the President.

Individuals who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the title "President of the United States in Congress Assembled," often shortened to "President of the United States". The office had little distinct executive power. With the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, a separate executive branch was created (President of the United States).

The President's executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still preventing the rise of an autocrat over a nation wary of royal authority.

After World War II, the United States' status as a superpower transformed the President into one of the world's most well-known and influential public figures. The appellation "leader of the free world", frequently used in reference to Presidents since the Cold War, symbolizes the President's elevated role in world affairs. The official presidential anthem is "Hail to the Chief"; preceded by "ruffles and flourishes", it is primarily played to announce the President at state functions.[1]

Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. His or her role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the country's constitution and further legislation. The head of state is often thought of as the official "leader" of the nation-state.

Charles de Gaulle described the role he envisaged for the French president when he wrote the modern French constitution, stating the head of state should embody "the spirit of the nation" for the nation itself and the world: une certaine idée de la France (a certain idea about France). Today many countries expect their head of state to embody national values in a similar fashion.

This series is part of
the Politics series

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[edit] Constitutional models

In protocolary terms, states are distinguished as monarchy or republic depending on the style (and usually mode of accession, see below) of their head of state, a typical constitutional provision, but as such this is not defining for the actual political system, which often evolves significantly within either or can remain unaltered in other respects despite a transition from monarchy to republic (or, rarer, vice versa).

Different state constitutions (fundamental laws) establish different political systems, but four major types of heads of state can be distinguished:

  1. the non-executive head of state system, in which the head of state does not hold any executive power and mainly plays a symbolic role on behalf of the state;
  2. the parliamentary system, in which the head of state possesses executive power but the exercise of this power is done on the advice of a cabinet;
  3. the presidential system (sometimes called 'imperial'), in which the head of state is also the head of government and actively exercises executive power; and,
  4. the semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares exercise of executive power with a head of government.

[edit] Non-executive heads of state

Mary McAleese, President of Ireland, is an example of a non-executive head of state.

One form that the head of state role takes can be loosely called the non-executive head of state model. Its holders are excluded completely from the executive: they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, within the government. Hence their states' governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of "His/Her Majesty's Government" or "His/Her Excellency's Government." Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist. The King of Sweden, since the passage of the modern Swedish constitution (the Instrument of Government) in the mid 1970s, no longer has any of the parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to Swedish kings, but still receives formal cabinet briefings monthly in the royal palace. In contrast, the only contact the Irish president has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the Taoiseach (prime minister) to the President. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of An Taoiseach (prime minister's office).

[edit] Parliamentary system

Queen Elizabeth II, one of the world's best known and longest serving heads of states.

In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the nominal chief executive officer of the state, possessing executive power (hence the description of the United Kingdom monarch's government as His/Her Majesty's Government; a term indicating that all power belongs to the sovereign and the government acts on Her Majesty's behalf, not parliament's). In reality however, due to a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a prime minister, or President of the Government, who is answerable to the legislature. This accountability requires that someone be chosen from parliament who has parliament's support (or, at least, not parliament's opposition - a subtle but important difference). It also gives parliament the right to vote down the government, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. Governments are thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to parliament, with the government in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state.

A monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged in an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, and "is wholly set apart from all other members of the state."[1] The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. It was a common form of government in the world during the ancient and medieval times.

There is no clear definition of monarchy. Holding unlimited political power in the state is not the defining characteristic, as many constitutional monarchies such as the United Kingdom and Thailand are considered monarchies. Hereditary rule is often a common characteristic, but elective monarchies are considered monarchies (the pope, sovereign of the Vatican City State, is elected by the College of Cardinals) and some states have hereditary rulers, but are considered republics (such as the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, or the Great Council of Chiefs in Fiji).[1] A 1914 edition of Bouvier's Law Dictionary states that "Monarchy is contradistinguished from republic," and gives this definition:

We cannot find any better definition of monarchy than what this is: a monarchy is the government which is ruled (really or theoretically) by one person, who is wholly set apart from all other members of the state's (called his subjects); while we call republic that government in which not only there exists an organism by which the opinion of the people, or of a portion of the people (as in aristocracies), passes over into public will, that is, law, but in which also the supreme power, or the executive power, returns, either periodically or at stated times (where the chief magistracy is for life), to the people, or a portion of the people, to be given anew to another person; or else, that government in which the hereditary portion (if there be any) is not the chief and leading portion of the government, as was the case in the Netherlands.[1]

Currently, 44 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. Elizabeth II also holds a variety of other positions, among them Head of the Commonwealth, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Duke of Normandy, Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji.



[edit] Etymology

     Absolute monarchy     Semi-constitutional monarchy     Constitutional monarchy     States in personal union with a constitutional monarch, such as many Commonwealth realms     Subnational monarchies (partial)

The word monarch (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek μονάρχης (from μόνος, "one/singular," and ἀρχων, "leader/ruler/chief") which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. With time, the word has been succeeded in this meaning by others, such as autocrat or dictator. In modern use the word monarch generally is used when referring to a traditional system of hereditary rule, with elective monarchies often considered as exceptions.

[edit] Characteristics and role

Part of the Politics series on
Crown of St. Edward
Politics portal

Today, the extent of a monarch's powers varies:


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