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Lincoln Wear-Ever Professional Standard Strength Strapped Roast Pans
Reinfoced steel strapps add strength and durability. Choose Lincoln Wear-Ever Professional roast pans for medium to heavy roasting needs. NSF approved for commercial use. Extra dent-resistant 3004 Aluminum Alloy. 4482-1/2 and 4483-1/2 pans have six lugs that enable these pans to function as covers. Loop handles. Superb strength. Please allow 1 week to 10 days for delivery of this item.
Price: 97.00

Professional Standard Strength Strapped Roast Pans with Lugs
Strapped roast pans are ideal for high volume use -in and out of the oven- and always retain their rigidity. Same as above pans with lugs (above pans can be used as covers with this pan). Sold as a set below. Please allow 1 week to 10 days for delivery of this item.
Price: 110.00

Professional Standard Strapped Roast Pan Set
Set of Lincoln Wear-Ever Professional Standard Strength strapped roast pans. NSF, Extra Dent-resistant 3004 Aluminum Alloy. Bottom pan has six lugs that enable top pan to be used as cover. Please allow 1 week to 10 days for delivery of this item.
Price: 205.00

Manitowoc S-1000 Series Ice Machine
Up to 1060 lbs daily ice production. Only 30" wide. Available air-cooled or water-cooled with option for dice or 1/2 dice cubes. Only 30" wide. Removable water distribution tube with no tools. Food zone designed with soft, round, cove corners. Patented cleaning and sanitizing technology. Select components made with AlphaSan anti-microbial. Patented Ice-Harvest technology reduces energy demands. Hinged front door for easy access.Dimensions with S-570 bin: 76.5"H x 30"W x 34"D with 430 lbs ice storage. Warranty: 5-year parts and 5-year labor coverage on ice machine evaporator. 5-year parts and 3-year labor coverage on ice machine compressor. 3-year parts and labor coverage on all other ice machine, dispenser and storage bin components. Height includes adjustable bin legs, 6"-8" set at 6". 208-230/60/1
Price: 4643.00

Classic Chrome Toaster by Maverick
Classic Chrome Toaster by Maverick. Warming feature lets you prepare the perfect meal. One side only toasting for bagels and muffins. Defrost Button for frozen bread, waffles, breakfast tarts. Adjustable light/dark control forperfect toast. Wide mouth for all shapes and types of toasting - even bread made with electric bread machines. Classic contours with hidden cord storage. 1,000 W, 60 Hz, 120 VAC. UL listed.
Price: 46.50

Henrietta Hen Egg Cooker
Hard or soft boils up to seven eggs. Poaches up to four eggs. Unique egg cooker designed in the shape of a stylized chicken makes and excellent gift for the gourmet cook. When the eggs are cooked, Henrietta chirps. UL listed. By Maverick.
Price: 29.95

McCall Sandwich/Salad Unit P-10-12
2 doors, 45" long. 30" deep. Cutting board is 12" deep. 1/5 H.P. Pan Top. Holds 12 pans.
Price: 1820.00

McCall Pizza Prep Table
Aliminum Interior:MC-PTA-1 1 Door 42"L 1/3HPMC-PTA-2 2 Door 68" 1/3HPMC-PTA-3 3 Door 94" 1/2HPStainless Interior:PTS-1 1 Door 42"L 1/3HPPTS-2 2 Door 68"L 1/3HPPTS-3 3 Door 94"L 1/2HPFeature stainless exterior with galvanized bottom and back. 6" casters. Epoxy coated shelves. Interior thermometer. Dual cool system. Self-closing door(s). Non-CFC foam insulation. NSF. McCall warranty: 1 year parts, 1 year labor, 5 years compressor. Return policy: A 30% restocking fee may apply. Returns must be unused, undamaged, and in original crate.
Price: 24.00

McCall Sandwich/Salad Unit ST-27-2
34" deep, 27" long. Cutting board is 8.5" deep. 1/5 H.P. NSF. McCall warranty: One year parts, one year labor, 5 years compressor. McCall return policy: 30% restocking fee. Returned equipment must be unused, undamaged, and in original crate.
Price: 1470.00

Messermeister 12 Pocket Case
Soft canvas knife case is approximately 20" x 8". Available in black or burgundy. Holds 12 knives (not included).Messermeister's knife luggage is of the highest quality, and their cases offer safe cutlery storage and care.
Price: 31.99

Messermeister 8 Pocket Case
Soft canvas knife case is approximately 20" x 6". Holds 8 knives (not included). Available in burgundy or black.Messermeister is the leading designer of professional and educational knife rolls and attache cases, the preferred choice of most professional chefs and culinary students around the world.
Price: 21.99

Messermeister German Garnishing Set
9 Piece garnishing tool set includes a veggie peeler, deco zester, channel knife, oval melon baller, 15mm melon baller, 22mm mellon baller, 30mm mellon baller. 2-1/2" bird's beak parer with sheath, and a 10 piece garnish case.
Price: 95.50

Messermeister Japanese Garnishing Set
Includes a vegetable peeler, butter curler, melon baller, apple corer, tomato shark, lemon zester, oyster/clam knife, melon decorator, bird's beak parer, and a 10 piece garnish case.
Price: 59.75

Four Seasons Advanced Student Set
Messermeister Four Seasons 5000 Series cutlery set includes 12 pc. knife bag, granton roast beef slicer, sharpening steel, 10 inch chef knife, scalloped bread knife, 8 inch granton carver, 77 inch straight carver, 6 inch stiff boning knife, 4 inch parer, 2 inch garnishing knife, swivel peeler, thermomet, zester and kitchen shears. Knife guards included.Four Seasons Series features Santoprene molded handle, 3/4 inch tang, extra wide chef's knife blades, brushed finishes, camber blade for precision rocking action, high carbon no-stain molybdenum banadium tool steel, RockWell hardness 56-57.Sharpening Steel</font></i>
<font color='#FF0080' >Price: 239.00</font>
</b><br/><center><a  href='http://www.shareasale.com/m-pr.cfm?merchantID=5747&userID=89992&productID=453657771' target=_blank ><img hspace=2  vspace=2 src='http://www.akitchen.com/store/media/four-seasons.jpg'       border=0 /></a></center><br clear=all></td></tr>
<tr><td><hr /></td></tr>
<tr><td><a href='http://www.shareasale.com/m-pr.cfm?merchantID=5747&userID=89992&productID=453657772' target=_blank ><font color='#400080'><i><b>Park Plaza Advanced Student Cutlery Set</b></i></font></a></td></tr>
<tr><td><i><font color='#400040'>Park Plaza 8000 Series Cutlery features full tang, 'POM' Polyoxymetholene handle, three rivet construction, high carbon no-stain molybdenum banadium tool steel, extra wide chef's knife blades, camber blade for precision rocking action.Set includes 12 piece knife bag, 12 inch extra wide granton slicer, 12 inch sharpening steel, 10 inch chef knife, 8 inch serrated bread knife, 8 inch carving knife, forged carving fork, 6 inch stiff boning knife, 4 inch paring knife, 2-1/2 inch garnishing knife, swivel peeler, thermometer, zester, kitchen shears, and edge guards.<img src=
Price: 316.00

Messermeister Premium German Cutlery Set E-3000-2CP
Meridian elite - 3000 Series 8" Chefs Knife and 3-1/2" Spear Point Parer Set. One peice fully forged. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Hand-polished "elite" edge. Riveted polyoxymetholene handle. Handsome Messermeister Solingen logo on blades.One piece fully forged. Extra-wide chefs knives blades. Bolsterless edge. Hand polished edge. Rockwell hardness 56-57. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Riveted "POM" Polyoxymetholene handle.
Price: 108.00

Messermeister Premium German Starter Cutlery Set E-3000-3S
Meridian elite - 3000 Series Starter Chef Knife Set includes a 3-1/2" parer, 6" utility knife, and an 8" chef's knife. One peice fully forged. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Hand-polished "elite" edge. Riveted polyoxymetholene handle. Handsome Messermeister Solingen logo on blades. Bolsterless edge. Hand polished edge. Rockwell hardness 56-57. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Riveted "POM" Polyoxymetholene handle.
Price: 155.00

Messermeister Premium German Gourmet Cutlery Set E-3000-4S
Meridian elite - 3000 Series Gourmet Set includes 3-1/2" parer, 6" utility knife, 8" granton carver, and 8" chef's knife. One peice fully forged. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Hand-polished "elite" edge. Riveted polyoxymetholene handle. Handsome Messermeister, Germany Solingen logo on blades. Bolsterless edge. Hand polished edge. Rockwell hardness 56-57. High carbon no-stain molybdenum vanadium tool steel. Riveted "POM" Polyoxymetholene handle.
Price: 222.00

  United States Presidential Inauguration

The swearing-in of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The United States Constitution mandates that the President make the following oath or affirmation before he or she can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.

The newly elected or re-elected President traditionally adds "so help me God" to the constitutionally mandated statement.

The swearing-in traditionally takes place at noon on Inauguration Day at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., with the Chief Justice of the United States administering the oath. From the presidency of Martin Van Buren through Jimmy Carter, the ceremony took place on the Capitol's East Portico. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol's West Front. The inauguration of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. Until 1937, Inauguration Day was March 4. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term).

Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed a regularly-scheduled Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. Eight presidential deaths and Richard Nixon's resignation have forced the oath of office to be administered by other officials on other days. The War of 1812 and World War II forced two swearings-in to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

From 1789 through 2005, the swearing-in has been administered by 14 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, three federal judges, two New York state judges, and one notary public. Though anyone legally authorized to administer an oath may swear in a President, to date the only person to do so who was not a judge was John C. Coolidge, Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary whose home the then-Vice President was visiting in 1923 when he learned of the death of President Warren G. Harding.



Inaugural ceremonies

The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, in New York City. Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1937, the day of inauguration was changed by the Twentieth Amendment from March 4 to noon on January 20, beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in 1937. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which did not officially become the federal capital until that year.[1]

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America and is the highest political official in the United States by influence and recognition. The President leads the executive branch of the federal government; his role is to execute the law as created by the Congress, in accordance with the Constitution of the United States. Article II of the Constitution establishes the President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and enumerates powers specifically granted to the President, including the power to sign into law or veto bills passed by both houses of the Congress. The President also has the power to create a cabinet of advisers and to grant pardons or reprieves. Finally, with the "advice and consent" of the Senate, the President is empowered to make treaties and appoint federal officers, ambassadors and federal judges, including Justices of the Supreme Court. As with officials in the other branches of the federal government, the Constitution restrains the President with a set of checks and balances designed to prevent any individual or group from taking absolute power.




The Treaty of Paris in 1783 left the United States independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure. The Second Continental Congress had drawn up Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent confederation, but granting to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced. In part, this reflected the anti-monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to replace the British King.

However, during the economic depression due to the collapse of the continental dollar following the Revolution, the viability of the American government was threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability of the Continental Congress to redeem the public obligations incurred during the war. The Congress also appeared unable to become a forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce and economic development. In response a Constitutional Convention was convened, ostensibly to reform the Articles of Confederation, but that subsequently began to draft a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the office of the President.

Individuals who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the title "President of the United States in Congress Assembled," often shortened to "President of the United States". The office had little distinct executive power. With the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, a separate executive branch was created (President of the United States).

The President's executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still preventing the rise of an autocrat over a nation wary of royal authority.

After World War II, the United States' status as a superpower transformed the President into one of the world's most well-known and influential public figures. The appellation "leader of the free world", frequently used in reference to Presidents since the Cold War, symbolizes the President's elevated role in world affairs. The official presidential anthem is "Hail to the Chief"; preceded by "ruffles and flourishes", it is primarily played to announce the President at state functions.[1]

Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. His or her role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the country's constitution and further legislation. The head of state is often thought of as the official "leader" of the nation-state.

Charles de Gaulle described the role he envisaged for the French president when he wrote the modern French constitution, stating the head of state should embody "the spirit of the nation" for the nation itself and the world: une certaine idée de la France (a certain idea about France). Today many countries expect their head of state to embody national values in a similar fashion.

This series is part of
the Politics series

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[edit] Constitutional models

In protocolary terms, states are distinguished as monarchy or republic depending on the style (and usually mode of accession, see below) of their head of state, a typical constitutional provision, but as such this is not defining for the actual political system, which often evolves significantly within either or can remain unaltered in other respects despite a transition from monarchy to republic (or, rarer, vice versa).

Different state constitutions (fundamental laws) establish different political systems, but four major types of heads of state can be distinguished:

  1. the non-executive head of state system, in which the head of state does not hold any executive power and mainly plays a symbolic role on behalf of the state;
  2. the parliamentary system, in which the head of state possesses executive power but the exercise of this power is done on the advice of a cabinet;
  3. the presidential system (sometimes called 'imperial'), in which the head of state is also the head of government and actively exercises executive power; and,
  4. the semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares exercise of executive power with a head of government.

[edit] Non-executive heads of state

Mary McAleese, President of Ireland, is an example of a non-executive head of state.

One form that the head of state role takes can be loosely called the non-executive head of state model. Its holders are excluded completely from the executive: they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, within the government. Hence their states' governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of "His/Her Majesty's Government" or "His/Her Excellency's Government." Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist. The King of Sweden, since the passage of the modern Swedish constitution (the Instrument of Government) in the mid 1970s, no longer has any of the parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to Swedish kings, but still receives formal cabinet briefings monthly in the royal palace. In contrast, the only contact the Irish president has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the Taoiseach (prime minister) to the President. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of An Taoiseach (prime minister's office).

[edit] Parliamentary system

Queen Elizabeth II, one of the world's best known and longest serving heads of states.

In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the nominal chief executive officer of the state, possessing executive power (hence the description of the United Kingdom monarch's government as His/Her Majesty's Government; a term indicating that all power belongs to the sovereign and the government acts on Her Majesty's behalf, not parliament's). In reality however, due to a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a prime minister, or President of the Government, who is answerable to the legislature. This accountability requires that someone be chosen from parliament who has parliament's support (or, at least, not parliament's opposition - a subtle but important difference). It also gives parliament the right to vote down the government, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. Governments are thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to parliament, with the government in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state.

A monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged in an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, and "is wholly set apart from all other members of the state."[1] The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. It was a common form of government in the world during the ancient and medieval times.

There is no clear definition of monarchy. Holding unlimited political power in the state is not the defining characteristic, as many constitutional monarchies such as the United Kingdom and Thailand are considered monarchies. Hereditary rule is often a common characteristic, but elective monarchies are considered monarchies (the pope, sovereign of the Vatican City State, is elected by the College of Cardinals) and some states have hereditary rulers, but are considered republics (such as the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, or the Great Council of Chiefs in Fiji).[1] A 1914 edition of Bouvier's Law Dictionary states that "Monarchy is contradistinguished from republic," and gives this definition:

We cannot find any better definition of monarchy than what this is: a monarchy is the government which is ruled (really or theoretically) by one person, who is wholly set apart from all other members of the state's (called his subjects); while we call republic that government in which not only there exists an organism by which the opinion of the people, or of a portion of the people (as in aristocracies), passes over into public will, that is, law, but in which also the supreme power, or the executive power, returns, either periodically or at stated times (where the chief magistracy is for life), to the people, or a portion of the people, to be given anew to another person; or else, that government in which the hereditary portion (if there be any) is not the chief and leading portion of the government, as was the case in the Netherlands.[1]

Currently, 44 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. Elizabeth II also holds a variety of other positions, among them Head of the Commonwealth, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Duke of Normandy, Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji.



[edit] Etymology

     Absolute monarchy     Semi-constitutional monarchy     Constitutional monarchy     States in personal union with a constitutional monarch, such as many Commonwealth realms     Subnational monarchies (partial)

The word monarch (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek μονάρχης (from μόνος, "one/singular," and ἀρχων, "leader/ruler/chief") which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. With time, the word has been succeeded in this meaning by others, such as autocrat or dictator. In modern use the word monarch generally is used when referring to a traditional system of hereditary rule, with elective monarchies often considered as exceptions.

[edit] Characteristics and role

Part of the Politics series on
Crown of St. Edward
Politics portal

Today, the extent of a monarch's powers varies:


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