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Aluminum Pasta Cooker
CST-PASTA12 12 Qt. $49.00CST-PASTA20 20 Qt. $59.00Our pasta cookers incorporate our standard aluminum stock pot and an additional perforated insert with a formed shoulder. All pasta cookers come with the pot, perforated insert and cover. Handles on both the insert and the pot are securely fastened with rivets. The cover universally fits the pot and the insert.
Price: 49.00

Professional Standard Strength Egg Poacher
Egg Poacher, complete set includes one 8-1/2" fry pan, aluminum tray & Silverstone Professional coated cups, dome cover and phelonic handle. NSF approved for commercial food service use.
Price: 24.95

Heavy Gauge Aluminum Stock Pots with Covers
Prices include cover. Heavy duty, commercial quality, 3mm thickness.
Price: .00

Stainless Stock Pots
Heavy Gauge, stainless steel stock pots are made to last with aluminum clad bottom for added strength and superior heat distribution. Sizes 8 quart - 40 quart are induction capable. 60, 80, 100 and 155 quart pots have capsulated bottoms and are not induction capable. These are heavy-duty, high-quality, commercial stock pots. Prices include cover.
Price: 39.95

60 Minute Manual Timer
60 minute short ring timer. Cassic manual dial timer offers basic timing abilities up to 1 hour. Countertop design for commercial or domestic kitchen use.
Price: 8.95

Dual Temp Refigerator/Freezer
1/2 refrigerator, 1/2 freezer. Stainless steel interior & exterior standard. Dual temp refrigerator / freezer features energy-saving half door design. Convenient low box height - without sacrificing interior storage space. Two Solid Half Door Refrigerator/Freezer. STANDARD FEATURES: Capillary tube. 5" Casters. Top-Mounted Compressor & Evaporator Coil. CFC-free R-134a & R-404a Refrigerant. Foamed-in-place Polyurethane Insulation. Electric Condensate Evaporator. 2 Epoxy-Coated Wire Shelves per Door. Fully Coved Interior Corners. Exterior Digital Temperature Control. Snap-In Magnetic Door Gaskets. Energy-Saving Half Door Design. Interior Lights. 6' Cord & Plug. Assembled in the USA.MATERIALS: INTERIOR: 304 series stainless steel interior for durability and appearance. Epoxy-coated wire shelves. EXTERIOR: Stainless steel cabinet and doors. 29.1"L 32.5"D x 76.2"H. 20 Cu.Ft. 4 Shelves. 1/5, 1/4 HP. 115/60/1 9.6 Amps. 5-20P Nema.
Price: 2250.00

Flashpak Pizza Delivery System from CookTek
The FlashPak PTDS, a patented technology, allows pizza delivery restaurants to deliver piping hot pizzas to households around the world using CookTek's proprietary induction technology. It addresses reliability and operational issues associated with existing heated pizza delivery products through the elimination of problematic cords and wax-based phase change materials. CookTek's lightweight, cord-free, solid-to-solid phase change system results in a more reliable, easier to operate system. The pellet consists of a special magnetic alloy that is encapsulated in a heat retentive plastic. The alloy activates the electromagnetic field produced by the charger, which in turn provides just the right amount of heat to be evenly dispersed throughout the pellet. When the pellet is fully heated, the induction charger automatically senses this and activates a green light on the display. This indicates that the bag is now ready to maintain the perfect temperature for a hot pizza delivery time of u
Price: 1475.00

Cuisinart Retro Style Cast Metal Toaster
New from Cuisinart! Brushed stainless steel housing with polished die-cast end panels. Features retro-style dial control and carriage lever. Browning control dial with six shade settings. Perfect for bagels also. Pop-out crumb tray.1 1/2" wide toasting slots. Convenient cord wrap. Instruction book and limited 3-year warranty.
Price: 79.95

Cuisinart Retro Style Four Slice Toaster
Brushed stainless steel housing with polished die-cast end panels. Four slice toaster features dual controls - two toasters in one. Retro-style dial controls and carriage levers. 1 to 6 settings and pop-out crumb tray.1 1/2" wide toasting slots. Convenient cord wrap. Instruction book and limited 3-year warranty.
Price: 99.95

Cuisinart 2 Slice Toaster in Chrome and Red
Cuisinart's Metal Classic Toaster. Features smooth brushed stainless housing with polished chrome and red accents. Custom control: Two 6-setting browning dials, dual reheat, defrost and bagel buttons with LED indicators 1 1/2" wide toasting slots. Extra-lift carriage lever and slide-out crumb tray. Limited 3-year warranty.Limited Supply
Price: 59.95

Cuisinart SmartStick Hand Blender and Chopper Grinder
Shaft extends 2 inches for deep pots and tall pitchers. Chopper/grinder attachment. Comfortable thmb switch for easy operation. Detachable shaft is dishwasher safe. Chopper/grinder attachment. Blending blade attachment. Whipping attachment. Clear mixing and measuring beaker. Compact storage stand is also wall mountable. 3-year limited warranty. For domestic use.See also: Cuisinart Hand Mixers
Price: 54.95

Cuisinart Filter Brew 12 Cup Programmable Coffeemaker
The Cuisinart� DCC-1000 is the height of contemporary design, and its performance is pure Cuisinart! Sleekly molded around our new contoured carafe, this stunning coffeemaker is engineered to produce 1 to 12 cups of exceptionally fresh and flavorful coffee. A Programmable Brew Time� feature wakes you with the wonderful smell of fresh coffee, and automatically turns the coffeemaker off when you want it off. There's simply no better way to start your day. Delicious coffee, yours from Cuisinart. 24-hour brew programmability Top-of-the-line features with stylish design 12-cup carafe with ergonomic handle, dripless spout and knuckle guard. Brew Pause� feature lets you enjoy a cup before brewing has finished. Programmable automatic shutoff, 0-4 hours. "Brewing complete" audible beep. Cord storage. Charcoal water filter (removes impurities). Measuring scoop. #4 paper filter starter kit. Instruction book. Limited 3-year warranty.
Price: 75.00

Cuisinart Coffee Maker with Stainless Steel Carafe
Cuisinart coffeemaker with stainless steel carafe. Compact enough to use for a small household or second home. Automatic shut-off after 30 minutes, so there is no need to worry when you leave the house in a hurry. Features 4 Cup stainless steel carafe with dripless pour spout and knuckle guard. Brew Pause feature allows you to pour a cup of coffee before brewing has finished. 30-minute automatic shutoff. On/Off indicator light. Limited 3-year warrantySorry, this item is no longer available.
Price: 29.00

Cuisinart Coffee Grinder in Red
Cuisinart coffee grinder to coordinate with your coffeemaker. This coffee grinder should be kept handy to grind your beans just prior to brewing your coffee for the best taste. Features stainless steel bowl and blades. On/Off switch with safety interlock. Transparent cover with measurement markings. 2.5-ounce capacity - enough for 12 cups. Easy-to-clean bowl and lid. Limited 18-month warranty
Price: 21.00

Cuisinart GR-4 Griddler
The Cuisinart� Griddler� makes "multifunctional" an understatement! Make perfect panini... plus! With four separate cooking options, it can handle everything from pancakes to sausages to grilled cheese to steaks, hamburgers and panini. It helps you prepare more servings of more kinds of food in less time, so you can cook for a crowd -- no one has to wait! Simply change the cooking plates and adjust the floating hinge to use the Griddler as a Contact Grill, a Panini Press, or your choice of an extra-large double Open Grill or Griddle. Contact grill, panini press, flat grill and griddle Removable, nonstick grill and griddle plates Cooking plates drain grease for healthy cooking Hinged, floating cover adjusts to thickness of food Selector knob with �power on� indicator light. Two adjustable temperature controls with indicator lights Brushed stainless steel and cool-touch housing. Two drip cups. Cleaning/scraping tool. Instruction/Recipe book. Limited 3-year warranty. Limited 3
Price: 129.00

Cuisinart 7-Speed Electric LED Hand Mixer
Includes: Powerful 220 Watt Motor. Super sized stainless steel beaters. Smooth Start to eliminate splattering. 3 low mix speeds. LED speed display. Professional stainless steel chef's whisk. Exclusive rotating swivel cord. One step on/off power switch. Automatic feedback power. Maximum comfort handle. Instruction/recipe book. Spatula. 3-year limited warranty.
Price: 47.95

Cuisinart Retro Toaster Oven Broiler
Sorry this item has been discontinued! Cuisinart streamlines its toaster oven to take up a little less space on the counter. This Retro Toaster Oven Broiler, in brushed stainless with smooth black panels and slide controls features a .3 cubic foot baking capacity. Brushed stainless steel and black housing.Simple slide controls: Temperature, Function, Toast Shade. Electronic temperature compensation provides consistent toasting, cycle after cycle. Durable, easy-to-clean interior with tinted glass door. Bake tray and broil pan. Power On LED indicator. Slide-out crumb tray. Cord wrap Instruction/Recipe book. Limited 3-year warranty.Sorry this item has been discontinued.
Price: .00

Crown Verity High Capacity Electric Steamer
Now you can cook with steam. This Crown Verity high capacity electric steamer is designed for high volume stadiums, arenas, price clubs, universities, hospitals and contract feeders. Each unit comes complete with a custom pan package consisting of roll dome, perforated pans, steaming baskets, 8 inch deep shoulder pans, lids and brackets. Consist of three 12.0 x 20.0 inch steam wells. Four inch adjustable legs come standard(not shown). Overall dimension of 43.25W x 24.5D x 31H inches. 240 Volts, 24 Amps. 190 lbs.
Price: 3040.00

  United States Presidential Inauguration

The swearing-in of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The United States Constitution mandates that the President make the following oath or affirmation before he or she can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.

The newly elected or re-elected President traditionally adds "so help me God" to the constitutionally mandated statement.

The swearing-in traditionally takes place at noon on Inauguration Day at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., with the Chief Justice of the United States administering the oath. From the presidency of Martin Van Buren through Jimmy Carter, the ceremony took place on the Capitol's East Portico. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol's West Front. The inauguration of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. Until 1937, Inauguration Day was March 4. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term).

Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed a regularly-scheduled Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. Eight presidential deaths and Richard Nixon's resignation have forced the oath of office to be administered by other officials on other days. The War of 1812 and World War II forced two swearings-in to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

From 1789 through 2005, the swearing-in has been administered by 14 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, three federal judges, two New York state judges, and one notary public. Though anyone legally authorized to administer an oath may swear in a President, to date the only person to do so who was not a judge was John C. Coolidge, Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary whose home the then-Vice President was visiting in 1923 when he learned of the death of President Warren G. Harding.



Inaugural ceremonies

The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, in New York City. Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1937, the day of inauguration was changed by the Twentieth Amendment from March 4 to noon on January 20, beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in 1937. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which did not officially become the federal capital until that year.[1]

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America and is the highest political official in the United States by influence and recognition. The President leads the executive branch of the federal government; his role is to execute the law as created by the Congress, in accordance with the Constitution of the United States. Article II of the Constitution establishes the President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and enumerates powers specifically granted to the President, including the power to sign into law or veto bills passed by both houses of the Congress. The President also has the power to create a cabinet of advisers and to grant pardons or reprieves. Finally, with the "advice and consent" of the Senate, the President is empowered to make treaties and appoint federal officers, ambassadors and federal judges, including Justices of the Supreme Court. As with officials in the other branches of the federal government, the Constitution restrains the President with a set of checks and balances designed to prevent any individual or group from taking absolute power.




The Treaty of Paris in 1783 left the United States independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure. The Second Continental Congress had drawn up Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent confederation, but granting to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced. In part, this reflected the anti-monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to replace the British King.

However, during the economic depression due to the collapse of the continental dollar following the Revolution, the viability of the American government was threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability of the Continental Congress to redeem the public obligations incurred during the war. The Congress also appeared unable to become a forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce and economic development. In response a Constitutional Convention was convened, ostensibly to reform the Articles of Confederation, but that subsequently began to draft a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the office of the President.

Individuals who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the title "President of the United States in Congress Assembled," often shortened to "President of the United States". The office had little distinct executive power. With the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, a separate executive branch was created (President of the United States).

The President's executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still preventing the rise of an autocrat over a nation wary of royal authority.

After World War II, the United States' status as a superpower transformed the President into one of the world's most well-known and influential public figures. The appellation "leader of the free world", frequently used in reference to Presidents since the Cold War, symbolizes the President's elevated role in world affairs. The official presidential anthem is "Hail to the Chief"; preceded by "ruffles and flourishes", it is primarily played to announce the President at state functions.[1]

Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. His or her role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the country's constitution and further legislation. The head of state is often thought of as the official "leader" of the nation-state.

Charles de Gaulle described the role he envisaged for the French president when he wrote the modern French constitution, stating the head of state should embody "the spirit of the nation" for the nation itself and the world: une certaine idée de la France (a certain idea about France). Today many countries expect their head of state to embody national values in a similar fashion.

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[edit] Constitutional models

In protocolary terms, states are distinguished as monarchy or republic depending on the style (and usually mode of accession, see below) of their head of state, a typical constitutional provision, but as such this is not defining for the actual political system, which often evolves significantly within either or can remain unaltered in other respects despite a transition from monarchy to republic (or, rarer, vice versa).

Different state constitutions (fundamental laws) establish different political systems, but four major types of heads of state can be distinguished:

  1. the non-executive head of state system, in which the head of state does not hold any executive power and mainly plays a symbolic role on behalf of the state;
  2. the parliamentary system, in which the head of state possesses executive power but the exercise of this power is done on the advice of a cabinet;
  3. the presidential system (sometimes called 'imperial'), in which the head of state is also the head of government and actively exercises executive power; and,
  4. the semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares exercise of executive power with a head of government.

[edit] Non-executive heads of state

Mary McAleese, President of Ireland, is an example of a non-executive head of state.

One form that the head of state role takes can be loosely called the non-executive head of state model. Its holders are excluded completely from the executive: they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, within the government. Hence their states' governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of "His/Her Majesty's Government" or "His/Her Excellency's Government." Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist. The King of Sweden, since the passage of the modern Swedish constitution (the Instrument of Government) in the mid 1970s, no longer has any of the parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to Swedish kings, but still receives formal cabinet briefings monthly in the royal palace. In contrast, the only contact the Irish president has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the Taoiseach (prime minister) to the President. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of An Taoiseach (prime minister's office).

[edit] Parliamentary system

Queen Elizabeth II, one of the world's best known and longest serving heads of states.

In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the nominal chief executive officer of the state, possessing executive power (hence the description of the United Kingdom monarch's government as His/Her Majesty's Government; a term indicating that all power belongs to the sovereign and the government acts on Her Majesty's behalf, not parliament's). In reality however, due to a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a prime minister, or President of the Government, who is answerable to the legislature. This accountability requires that someone be chosen from parliament who has parliament's support (or, at least, not parliament's opposition - a subtle but important difference). It also gives parliament the right to vote down the government, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. Governments are thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to parliament, with the government in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state.

A monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged in an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, and "is wholly set apart from all other members of the state."[1] The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. It was a common form of government in the world during the ancient and medieval times.

There is no clear definition of monarchy. Holding unlimited political power in the state is not the defining characteristic, as many constitutional monarchies such as the United Kingdom and Thailand are considered monarchies. Hereditary rule is often a common characteristic, but elective monarchies are considered monarchies (the pope, sovereign of the Vatican City State, is elected by the College of Cardinals) and some states have hereditary rulers, but are considered republics (such as the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, or the Great Council of Chiefs in Fiji).[1] A 1914 edition of Bouvier's Law Dictionary states that "Monarchy is contradistinguished from republic," and gives this definition:

We cannot find any better definition of monarchy than what this is: a monarchy is the government which is ruled (really or theoretically) by one person, who is wholly set apart from all other members of the state's (called his subjects); while we call republic that government in which not only there exists an organism by which the opinion of the people, or of a portion of the people (as in aristocracies), passes over into public will, that is, law, but in which also the supreme power, or the executive power, returns, either periodically or at stated times (where the chief magistracy is for life), to the people, or a portion of the people, to be given anew to another person; or else, that government in which the hereditary portion (if there be any) is not the chief and leading portion of the government, as was the case in the Netherlands.[1]

Currently, 44 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. Elizabeth II also holds a variety of other positions, among them Head of the Commonwealth, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Duke of Normandy, Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji.



[edit] Etymology

     Absolute monarchy     Semi-constitutional monarchy     Constitutional monarchy     States in personal union with a constitutional monarch, such as many Commonwealth realms     Subnational monarchies (partial)

The word monarch (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek μονάρχης (from μόνος, "one/singular," and ἀρχων, "leader/ruler/chief") which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. With time, the word has been succeeded in this meaning by others, such as autocrat or dictator. In modern use the word monarch generally is used when referring to a traditional system of hereditary rule, with elective monarchies often considered as exceptions.

[edit] Characteristics and role

Part of the Politics series on
Crown of St. Edward
Politics portal

Today, the extent of a monarch's powers varies:


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