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Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:
Infinity (commonly represented as the symbol ∞) comes from the Latin infinitas or "unboundedness.". Latin (lingua latīna, pronounced [laˈtiːna]) is an ancient Indo-European language that was spoken in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Pronounced means Spoken; voiced. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most of the major languages of Europe, the northern Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and much of Central Asia. The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. A republic is a state or country that is not led by a hereditary monarch, where the people of that state or country (or at least a part of that people) have impact on its government, and that is usually indicated as a republic. A family is a domestic or social group. A language is a system of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the rules used to manipulate them. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Indian or Indians usually refers to the inhabitants of India or, alternatively and completely differently, American Indians. A subcontinent is a small part of a continent. South means the direction along a meridian 90° clockwise from east; the direction to the right of sunrise. Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent. Iran, (Persian: ايران, ĭrănˈ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ايران, pronounced [dʒomhuɾije ʔeslɒmije ʔiɾɒn]), formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia. In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. Southwest Abbr. SW The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due south and due west, or 135° west of due north. Central means situated at, in, or near the center: the central states. Ancient means having had an existence of many years. Civilization or civilisation is a kind of human society or culture; specifically, a civilization is usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the process of state formation, the practice of agriculture and settlement in cities. An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area. In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. The word monarch derives from Greek monos archein, meaning "one ruler," which referred to an absolute ruler in ancient Greece. Symbols are objects, characters, or other concrete representations of ideas, concepts, or other abstractions. Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Greek (ελληνική γλώσσα IPA: [eliniˈkʲi ˈɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [eliniˈka] — "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,400 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. Variety means the quality or condition of being various or varied; diversity. A continent is one of several large landmasses on Earth. Earth (pronounced /ˈɝːθ/) is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, in both diameter and mass. India (Hindi: भारत Bhārat; see also other names), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a sovereign nation in South Asia. The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. Persian (local names: فارسی [fɒɾˈsi], Fārsi or پارسی [pɒɾˈsi], Pārsi; see Nomenclature) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Persian Gulf states. Help means to give assistance to; aid: I helped her find the book. He helped me into my coat. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Islam (Arabic: ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. The Persian Empire (Persian: امپراتوری ایران) was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia, western South Asia and the Caucasus. Eurasia is a large landmass covering roughly 53,990,000 km² which is 10.6 percent of the surface of the Earth. Geology (from Greek: γη, ge, "earth"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. to talk about the earth) is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth. Science (from the Latin scientia, 'knowledge'), in the broadest sense, refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. Highland (geography), an elevated mountainous region. A society is a grouping of individuals which is characterized by common interests and may have distinctive culture and institutions. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate,") generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance. Complex means consisting of interconnected or interwoven parts; composite. Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing/harvesting of plants, animals and other life forms. A city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town. Form (Lat. forma Eng. mould), refers to the external three-dimensional outline, appearance or configuration of some thing - in contrast to the matter or content or substance of which it is composed (compare with shape). A government is "the organization, that is the governing authority of a political unit," "the ruling power in a political society," Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Political power, power held by a person or group in a country's political system. Voluntary association, a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to accomplish a purpose. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to complete control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface, typically a region bounded by a closed curve. Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. International or internationally most often describes interaction between nations, or encompassing two or more nations, constituting a group or association having members in two or more nations, or generally reaching beyond national boundaries. Specifically, if c times b equals a, written: where b is not zero, then a divided by b equals c, written: . A territory (from the word 'terra', meaning 'land') is a defined area (including land and waters),considered to be a possession of a person, organization, institution, animal, state or country subdivision. A nation is a form of self-defined cultural and social community. Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα Elláda, IPA: [ɛˈlaða], or Ελλάς Ellás, [ɛˈlas]), officially the Hellenic Republic [Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (ɛliniˈkʲi ðimokraˈtia)], is a country in Southeastern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[I] is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. Natural means present in or produced by nature: a natural pearl. A landmass is a large continuous area of land. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. Terrestrial planet, a planet that is primarily composed of silicate rocks. Solar means f, relating to, or proceeding from the sun: solar rays; solar physics. System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma) is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. In geometry, a diameter (Greek words dia = through and metro = measure) of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints are on the circle. Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of "how much matter there is in an object". Hindi (Devanāgarī: हिन्दी or हिंदी, IAST: Hindī, IPA: ) is the name given to an Indo-Aryan language, or a dialect continuum of languages, spoken in northern and central India (the "Hindi belt"), The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. Federal means of, relating to, or being a form of government in which a union of states recognizes the sovereignty of a central authority while retaining certain residual powers of government. A constitution is a system for governance, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity. 50 (fifty) is the integer following 49 and preceding 51. Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. Nomenclature refers to a set or system of names or terms, as those used in a particular science or art, used by an individual or community. Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Persian: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان), is a landlocked country that is located approximately in the center of Asia. Tajikistan (pronounced /təˈdʒɪkɨstæn/ or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/; Tajik: Тоҷикистон, pronounced [tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn] or [tɒːʤikɪsˈtɒn]), officially, the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон) is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси; Russian: Республика Узбекистан), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia, formerly part of the Soviet Union. A bay, usually referring to a large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea. Constraint means the state of being checked, restricted, or compelled to avoid or perform some action <the constraint and monotony of a monastic life — Matthew Arnold>. Control is used in a variety of contexts to express "mastery" or "proficiency": e.g. "Music students attending a master class are expected to have full control of basic skills such as rhythm and pitch". Data refers to a collection of organized information, usually the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises. An instruction is a form of communicated information that is both command and explanation for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted, or executed. Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Meaning (linguistic), meaning which is communicated through the use of language. Mind, the collective aspects of intellect and consciousness. Stimulus (physiology), something external that influences an activity. A pattern, from the French patron, is a theme of reoccurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set. In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. Knowledge representation, the study of formal ways to describe knowledge. Arabic (الْعَرَبيّة al-ʿarabiyyah or just عَرَبيْ ʿarabī) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. In theology, monotheism (from Greek μόνος "one" and θεός "god") is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions—Christianity, Islam, and Judaism—which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. Abu l-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Hashimi al-Qurashi (Arabic: محمد Muḥammad; (Mohammed, Muhammed, Mahomet) (c. 570 Mecca – June 8, 632 Medina), was the founder of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: الله Allah), and is also regarded as a prophet by the Druze and as a Manifestation of God by the Bahá'í Faith. An Arab (Arabic: عربي, ʿarabi) is a member of an ethnic group which identifies as such on the basis of either genealogical or linguistic grounds, sometimes including Arabized populations. The Western is a fiction genre seen in film, television, radio, literature, painting and other visual arts. A caucus is most generally defined as a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. Logos derives from the verb λέγω legō: to count, tell, say, or speak. Systematic means presented or formulated as a coherent body of ideas or principles <systematic thought>. Practice (learning method), a method of learning by repetition. Grouping means a collection of people or things united into a group.
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