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Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:
Obscureness means absence or deficiency of light: dark, darkness, dimness, duskiness, murkiness, obscurity. See light/darkness. Dark means Lacking or having very little light: a dark corner. Darkness (also called lightlessness) is the absence of light. Dimness means lacking in brightness: a dim room. Dusky is Characterized by little or inadequate light; shadowy. Murky means Dark, dim, or gloomy: a murky dungeon. See Synonyms at dark. Obscure means shrouded in or hidden by darkness. Light, or visible light, is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400–700 nm). Dim is a low level of illumination (lighting); lacking in brightness. A room, in architecture, is any distinguishable space within a structure. A dungeon is a place where prisoners are kept. Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. Radiation, as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. In physics, wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency. Eyes are organs that detect light. Nanometre, an SI unit of length, equal to 10sup>-9 m (a thousand-millionth of a metre). Lighting includes both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures. Physics is the science of matter and its motion, as well as space and time — the science that deals with concepts such as force, energy, mass, and charge. In abstract algebra, a field is an algebraic structure in which the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (except division by zero) may be performed, and the same rules hold which are familiar from the arithmetic of ordinary numbers. In physics, force is what causes a mass to accelerate. Particle is a very small piece or part; a tiny portion or speck. Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, "amber-like") is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. In physics and other sciences, energy (from the Greek ενεργός, energos, "active, working") is a scalar physical quantity that is a property of objects and systems which is conserved by nature. A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space and time, usually with transferrance of energy. A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Frequency is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool", from Greek όργανον - organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. 10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. Supremum, in mathematics, the least upper bound of a partially ordered set. 9 (nine) is the natural number following 8 and preceding 10. Source means the place where something begins, where it springs into being; "the Italian beginning of the Renaissance" "Jupiter was the origin of the radiation"; "Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River"; "communism's Russian root" [syn: beginning, origin, root, rootage]. Daylight means the light of day; sunlight. Art refers to a diverse range of human activities and artifacts, and may be used to cover all or any of the arts, including music, literature and other forms. Science (from the Latin scientia, 'knowledge'), in the broadest sense, refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. Design, usually considered in the context of applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other creative endeavors, is used both as a noun and a verb. In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An act of construction. Structure is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. In science, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). Motion (physics), any physical movement or change in position or place. Science considers space to be a fundamental quantity (a quantity which can not be defined via other quantities because other quantities — like force and energy — are already defined via space). Time is a nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of "how much matter there is in an object". One well-known proposal is that an object is abstract if and only if it lacks a location in space. Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. Specifically, if c times b equals a, written: where b is not zero, then a divided by b equals c, written: . Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. A number is an abstract idea used in counting and measuring. In physics, acceleration is said as the rate of change of velocity, or as the second derivative of position (with respect to time). Latin (lingua latīna, pronounced [laˈtiːna]) is an ancient Indo-European language that was spoken in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. As a preposition or adjective, it comes from the Middle English like meaning "similar", which in turn comes from Anglo-Saxon gelīc and Old Norse líkr. Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. Greek (ελληνική γλώσσα IPA: [eliniˈkʲi ˈɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [eliniˈka] — "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,400 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. A scalar is a variable that only has magnitude, e.g. a speed of 40 km/h. Physical means the nature (physicality) of a physical entity. Quantity is a kind of which exists as magnitude or multitude. In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. Composite means made up of distinct components; compound. An atom is the smallest particle characterizing a chemical element. Measure (mathematics), a way to assign non-negative real numbers to subsets. Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, "life"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. "to talk about life"), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the scientific study of life. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. even and odd numbers -- even if divisible by 2. Natural means Present in or produced by nature: a natural pearl. 11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. 8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. Beginning means The act or process of bringing or being brought into being; a start. Origin (start), the beginning, starting-point, cause, or ultimate source, from which a thing is derived. It is better to define root as a part of a plant body that bears no leaves, and therefore also lacks nodes. Rootage means establishment by or as if by roots. An often-cited definition of music, coined by Edgard Varèse, is that it is "organized sound" (Goldman 1961, 133). Literature is a body of (usually) written works related by subject-matter, by language or place of origin, or by dominant cultural standards. Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Systematic means presented or formulated as a coherent body of ideas or principles <systematic thought>. Practice (learning method), a method of learning by repetition. Applied means to
put into practice or a particular use: applied physics. Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying scientific and technical knowledge to the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. Creative is characterized by originality and expressiveness; imaginative: creative writing. A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. In syntax, a verb is a word belonging to the part of speech that usually denotes an action (bring, read), an occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Real means being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verifiable existence: real objects; a real illness.
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