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Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:
In physics and chemistry, a plasma is typically an ionized gas. Plasma is considered to be a distinct state of matter, apart from gases, because of its unique properties. Physics is the science of matter and its motion, as well as space and time — the science that deals with concepts such as force, energy, mass, and charge. Physics is an experimental science; it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the world around us behaves. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. Historically, modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773). State Means a condition or mode of being, as with regard to circumstances: a state of confusion. A condition of being in a stage or form, as of structure, growth, or development: the fetal state. Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. A gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of a collection of particles (molecules, atoms, ions, electrons, etc.) without a definite shape or volume that are in more or less random motion. Due to the electronic nature of the aforementioned particles, a "force field" is present throughout the space around them. Science (from the Latin scientia, 'knowledge'), in the broadest sense, refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research. In physics, motion means a continuous change in the location of a body. All motion is the result of an applied force. Science considers space to be a fundamental quantity (a quantity which can not be defined via other quantities because other quantities — like force and energy — are already defined via space). Thus an operational definition is used in which the procedure of measurement of space intervals (distances) and the units of measurement are defined. Time is
A nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. An interval separating two points on this continuum; a duration: a long time since the last war; passed the time reading. In physics, force is what causes a mass to accelerate. It may be experienced as a twist, a push, or a pull. In physics and other sciences, energy (from the Greek ενεργός, energos, "active, working") is a scalar physical quantity that is a property of objects and systems which is conserved by nature. Energy is often defined as the ability to do work. Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of "how much matter there is in an object". Mass is a central concept of classical mechanics and related subjects, and there are several definitions of mass within the framework of relativistic kinematics (see mass in special relativity and mass in General Relativity). Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, "of (or from) trying") is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. The experiment is a cornerstone in the empirical approach to acquiring deeper knowledge about the physical world. Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The Egyptians (Egyptian: rmṯnkm.t; Coptic: ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ni.ramenkīmi; Arabic: مِصريّون miṣriyūn; Masri: مَصريين maṣreyyīn) are a nation and a North African ethnic group native to Egypt. Egyptian identity is rooted in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivatable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean Sea and enclosed by vast deserts. Earth (pronounced /ˈɝːθ/) is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, in both diameter and mass. It is also referred to as the Earth, Planet Earth, and the World, and in some contexts, Gaia and Terra. A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. It is a concept that became firmly established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate. A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. In the history of science, alchemy from Arabic (al-kimia) refers to both an early form of the investigation of nature and an early philosophical and spiritual discipline, both combining elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, spiritualism, and art all as parts of one greater force. Alchemy has been practiced in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Japan, Korea and China, in Classical Greece and Rome, in the Muslim civilization, and then in Europe up to the 19th century—in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2500 years.
A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround") is a significant change that usually takes place in a short period of time. Aristotle described two types of political revolution: Complete change from one constitution to another. Modification of an existing constitution. An atom is the smallest particle characterizing a chemical element. An atom consists of an electron cloud surrounding a dense nucleus. In chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by strong chemical bonds. In organic chemistry and biochemistry, the term molecule is used less strictly and also is applied to charged organic molecules and biomolecules. An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion (pronounced /ˈænaɪən/; an-eye-on). The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. It is a spin ½ lepton that participates in electromagnetic interactions, its mass is approximately 1 / 1836 of the proton. In physics, a field is a presence of a physical quantity at every point in space (or, more generally, spacetime). A field is thus viewed as extending throughout a large region of space so that its influence is all-pervading. Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. presented or formulated as a coherent body of ideas or principles <systematic thought>3 a: methodical in procedure or plan <a systematic approach> <a systematic scholar> b: marked by thoroughness and regularity <systematic efforts>. Scientific method refers to the body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and is aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Fundamental means serving as an original or generating source : primary <a discovery fundamental to modern computers> serving as a basis supporting existence or determining essential structure or function : basic. Quantity is a kind of which exists as magnitude or multitude. It is among the basic classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation. An operational definition is a showing of something — such as a variable, term, or object — in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. Properties described in this manner must be publicly accessible so that persons other than the definer can independently measure or test for them at will. Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. Measurement usually involves using a measuring instrument, such as a ruler or scale, which is calibrated to compare the object to some standard, such as a meter or a kilogram. Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. In physics or everyday discussion, distance may refer to a physical length, a period of time, or an estimation based on other criteria (e.g. "two counties over"). In physics, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, or as the second derivative of position (with respect to time). It is then a vector quantity with dimension length/time². Greek (ελληνική γλώσσα IPA: [eliniˈkʲi ˈɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [eliniˈka] — "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,400 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. It is also one of the earliest attested Indo-European languages, with fragmentary records in Mycenaean dating back to the 15th or 14th century BC, making it one of the world's oldest recorded living languages. A scalar is a variable that only has magnitude, e.g. a speed of 40 km/h. Compare it with vector, a quantity comprising both magnitude and direction, e.g. a velocity of 40km/h north.
Of or relating to the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit. See Synonyms at bodily. Involving or characterized by vigorous bodily activity: a physical dance performance. In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. Like energy, it is a scalar quantity, with SI units of joules. Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science and technology. Special relativity (SR) (aka the special theory of relativity (STR)) is the physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". It generalizes Galileo's principle of relativity — that all uniform motion is relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest (no privileged reference frames) — from mechanics to all the laws of physics, including both the laws of mechanics and of electrodynamics, whatever they may be. General means
Concerned with, applicable to, or affecting the whole or every member of a class or category: “subduing all her impressions as a woman, to something more general” (Virginia Woolf). Affecting or characteristic of the majority of those involved; prevalent: general discontent. A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter.
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