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Harvard 2-Minute Drill
Harvard 2-Minute Drill Show all your buddies that you have the biggest arm in the bunch. Fire passes into your opponents goal to score, and beat the clock in heart-pounding pigskin action.
Price: 149.99

Harvard Ice Zone Air Hockey Table
Harvard Ice Zone Air Hockey Table Colorful graphics air hockey table L-shaped legs with end panels and cross bars for stability External puck catchers and manual scoring Includes two red strikers and two red round pucks Black plastic corners for added strength and support 110-volt motor
Price: 299.99

Harvard XH 6000 6 ft. Hockey Table
Face off on the -ice- against friends and family with the Harvard- XH 6000 Hockey Table. The table is made of medium density fiberboard for optimal durability. The mesh goals with internal puck catchers and electronic scoring present a real-game feel. Accessories include 4 pushers and 4 pucks.
Price: 477.99

Harvard XH 7000 7 ft. Hockey Table
Face off against friends and family on the rink with the Harvard- XH 7000 7-ft. Hockey Table with deluxe electronic scoring. The stylish hockey game table has a glossy white laminate playbed with red and blue graphics and L-style legs with panels for extra stability. It includes 4 pucks, 4 ping strikers and 2 black cup holders.
Price: 699.99

Havard Dual Play- 7 Foot 2-IN-1 Multi Game Table
- - - 2 Games In One! Billiards And Air-Powered Hockey - 84 in. L. x 47 in. W. x 31 in. H. Assembled - 5 in. Billiards Rails With Cushions For Lively Rebounds - 6 3/4 in. Apron For Added Strength And Support A-Style Legs With Cross Bars For Extra Stability - - -
Price: 719.99

Harvard Roll-a-Score
Harvard Roll-a-Score The Harvard Roll-a-Score Skee Ball Arcade Game brings all the fun and excitement of the arcade to your home or office. Features two player scoring for exciting head to head competition. It even folds for easy storage. Play skee ball all day everyday!
Price: 359.99

Harvard QB Tryout
Harvard QB Tryout The Harvard QB Tryout Arcade Game will let you and your friends test your quarterbacking skills. 2 player head to head electronic scoring for exciting competition. The crowd's cheers will keep your blood pumping and the telescoping poles make for easy storage. With the QB Tryout you can test your football skills anytime you want.
Price: 179.99

Mizerak Mercer Pool Table-7 FT
The economical- Mercer pool table is a great choice for families or institutions on a budget. -
Price: 999.99

Victoria Pool Table-7 FT
The- Victoria pool table is a great choice for families on a budget looking for a classic style pool table -
Price: 1057.99

Mizerak Prescott Pool Table-7 FT
The- Prescott pool table is a great choice for families on a budget. - -
Price: 989.99

Individual Paddle-Stiga-Sandy Racket
Stiga-Sandy Racket Recreational Quality for Family Play Surface: Sand Face Handle: Straight Blade: Multi-Ply
Price: 10.99

Individual Paddle-Stiga-Strike Racket
Stiga-Strike RacketRecreational Quality for Family Play Surface: Pips Out Handle: Purple/TealBlade: 5-ply
Price: 10.99

Individual Paddle-Stiga-Xtreme Racket
Stiga-Xtreme RacketSuperior Quality for Competitive Play Regulation Inverted Surface Stiga� Tournament Rubber Handle: Concave, Merant with power balance Sponge: 2.2mm Blade: 5-ply
Price: 29.99

Individual Paddle-Stiga-Ultimate Racket
Stiga-Ultimate RacketSuperior Quality for Competitive Play Regulation Inverted Surface Stiga� Tournament Rubber Handle: Concave Italian with power balance Sponge: 2.2mm Blade: 5-ply
Price: 29.99

2 Player Set-Stiga-Classic 2 Player Set
Stiga-Classic 2 Player SetRecreational Quality for Family Play 2 Flash Rackets Surface: Pips Out Rubber: Red/Black Handle: Straight Blade: 5-ply 3 White One-Star Balls
Price: 19.99

2 Player Set-Stiga-Performance 2 Player Set
Stiga-Performance 2 Player SetPerformance Quality for Active Play 2 Strike Rackets Surface: Pips In Rubber: Purple/Teal Handle: Conical Blade: 5-ply
Price: 21.99

4 Player Set-Stiga-Classic 4 Player Set
Stiga-Classic 4 Player Set Recreational Quality for Family Play 4 Flash Rackets Surface: Pips Out Rubber: Red/Black Handle: Straight Blade: 5-ply
Price: 39.99

Ping Pong Balls-Stiga-ONE STAR Multi-Color Table Tennis Balls
Stiga-ONE STAR Multi-Color Table Tennis Balls Recreational Quality for Family Play Consistent bounce Excellent Spin Longer volleys 40mm regulation size 6 Multi-color balls
Price: 3.99



In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. When a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor, it elicits or influences a reflex via stimulus transduction. A stimulus is often the first component of a homeostatic control system. When a sensory nerve and a motor nerve communicate with each other, it is called a nerve stimulus.

Any of your five senses will accommodate to a particular stimulus. The stimulus–response model describes how statistical units such as receptor cells response to their effective stimulus.

Physiology (from Greek φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided between plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells may also apply to human cells.

The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human animal species. Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. Its scope of subjects is at least as diverse as the tree of life itself. Due to this diversity of subjects, research in animal physiology tends to concentrate on understanding how physiological traits changed throughout the evolutionary history of animals. Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, paleobiology, biomechanics, and pharmacology.



[edit] History

Physiology can trace its roots back more than two millennia to classical antiquity, to the Greek and Indian medical traditions. Human physiology dates back to at least 420 B.C. and the time of Hippocrates,[1] the father of medicine. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c. 126-199 A.D.), known as Galen, was the first to use experiments to probe the function of the body. Galen was the founder of experimental physiology.[2] The ancient Indian books of Ayurveda, the Sushruta Samhita and Charaka Samhita, also had descriptions on human anatomy and physiology. The medical world moved on from Galenism only with the appearance of Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey.[3]

During the Middle Ages, the ancient Greek and Indian medical traditions were further developed by Muslim physicians, most notably Avicenna (980-1037), who introduced experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology in The Canon of Medicine. Many of the ancient physiological doctrines were eventually discredited by Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), who was the first physician to correctly describe the anatomy of the heart, the coronary circulation, the structure of the lungs, and the pulmonary circulation, for which he is considered the father of circulatory physiology.[4] He was also the first to describe the relationship between the lungs and the aeration of the blood, the cause of pulsation,[5] and an early concept of capillary circulation.[6]

Following from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance brought an increase of physiological research in the Western world that triggered the modern study of anatomy and physiology. Andreas Vesalius was an author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica.[7]

logy is a suffix in English, found in words originally adapted from Greek words ending in -λογία (-logia). The earliest English examples were anglicizations of the French -logie, which was in turn inherited from the Latin -logia.[1]

It has two main senses in English:[2]

  • a combining form used in the names of sciences or bodies of knowledge (e.g. theology or sociology)
  • an ending of nouns that refer to kinds of speech, writing or collections of writing (e.g. eulogy or trilogy)



[edit] Etymology

In words of the type theology, the suffix is derived originally from -λογ- (-log-) (a variant of -λεγ-, -leg-), from the Greek verb λέγειν (legein, "to speak").[3] The suffix has the sense of "the character or department of one who speaks or treats of [a certain subject]", or more succinctly, "the study of [a certain subject]".[4]

In words of the type trilogy, the suffix is derived originally from the Greek noun λόγος (logos, "speech").[5] The suffix has the sense of "[a certain kind of] speaking or writing".[6]

[edit] -logy versus -ology

In English names for fields of study, the suffix -logy is most frequently found preceded by the vowel o so the word ends in -ology. In traditional English grammar, the -o- in -ology is considered part of the suffix -logy. This is because the -o- is not part of the suffix in the original Greek names for fields of study: In these Greek words, the root is always a noun and -o- is the combining vowel for all declensions of Greek nouns. However, when new names for fields of study have been coined in modern English, the formations ending in -logy almost invariably follow the Greek model by adding an -o-, even though there is no grammatical necessity in English. There are at least 22 exceptions: analogy, dekalogy, disanalogy, genealogy, genethlialogy, herbalogy (a variant of herbology), idealogy, mammalogy, mineralogy, paralogy, pentalogy, petralogy (a variant of petrology), tetralogy; elogy; antilogy, festilogy, trilogy; palillogy, pyroballogy; dyslogy; eulogy; and brachylogy.[7]Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to haplology as haplogy (subjecting the word haplology to haplology).

[edit] Additional usage as a suffix

Per metonymy, words ending in -logy are sometimes used to describe a subject rather than the study of it (e.g. technology). This usage is particularly widespread in medicine; for example, pathology is often used simply to refer to "the study of a disease" but to refer to "the disease" itself (e.g. "We haven't found the pathology yet").

Books, journals and treatises about a subject also often bear the name of this subject (e. g. Ecology (journal)).

When appended to other English words, the suffix can also be used humorously to create nonce words (e.g. beerology as "the study of beer", Wikiology as "the study of Wikipedia"). As with other classical compounds, adding the suffix to a initial word-stem derived from Greek or Latin may be used to lend grandeur or the impression of scientific rigor to humble pursuits, as in cosmetology ("the study of beauty treatment") or cynology ("the study of dog training").

In grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.

Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence.[1]

Some examples from English:

Girls, where the suffix -s marks the plural.
He makes, where suffix -s marks the third person singular present tense.
He closed, where the suffix -ed marks the past tense.

A large number of endings are found in many synthetic languages such as Czech, German, Finnish, Latin, Hungarian, Russian, etc.

Suffixes used in English frequently have Greek, French or Latin origins.



[edit] Inflectional suffixes

Inflection changes grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. In the example:

The weather forecaster said it would clear today, but it hasn't cleared at all.

the suffix -ed inflects the root-word clear to indicate past tense.

Some inflectional suffixes in present day English:

[edit] Derivational suffixes

In the example:

"The weather forecaster said it would be clear today, but I can't see clearly at all"

the suffix -ly modifies the root-word clear from an adjective into an adverb. Derivation can also form a semantically distinct word within the same syntactic category. In this example:

"The weather forecaster said it would be a clear day today, but I think it's more like clearish!"

the suffix -ish modifies the root-word clear, changing its meaning to "clear, but not very clear".

Some derivational suffixes in present day English:

  • -ize/-ise
  • -fy
  • -ly
  • -able
  • -ful
  • -ness
  • -ism
  • -ment
  • -ist
  • -al

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Free Online Dictionary
  2. ^ Zwicky, Arnold M.; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (1983), "Cliticization vs. Inflection: English n't", Language 59 (3): 502-513


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