War is the reciprocal and violent application
of force between hostile political entities aimed at
bringing about a desired political end-state via armed
conflict. In his seminal work,
Carl Von Clausewitz calls war the "continuation of
political intercourse, carried on with other means."
War is an interaction in which two or more militaries
have a “struggle of wills”.
When qualified as a
civil war, it is a dispute inherent to a given
society, and its nature is in the conflict over modes of
governance rather than
sovereignty. War is not considered to be the same as
genocide because of the reciprocal nature of the
violent struggle, and the
organized nature of the units involved.
War is also a cultural entity, and its practice is
not linked to any single type of political organisation
or society. Rather, as discussed by
John Keegan in his “History Of Warfare”, war is a
universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by
the society that wages it.
The conduct of war extends along a continuum, from the
tribal warfare that began well before recorded human
history, to wars between
empires. A group of combatants and their support is
army on land, a
navy at sea, and
air force in the air. Wars may be prosecuted
simultaneously in one or more different
theatres. Within each theatre, there may be one or
military campaigns. A military campaign includes not
only fighting but also intelligence, troop movements,
propaganda, and other components. Continuous
conflict is traditionally called a
battle, although this terminology is not always fed
to conflicts involving aircraft, missiles or bombs
alone, in the absence of ground troops or naval forces.
War is not limited to the
human species, as
ants engage in massive intra-species conflicts which
might be termed warfare. It is theorized that other
species also engage in similar behavior, although this
is not well documented.
Some believe war has always been with us; others
stress the lack of clear evidence that war is not in our
prehistoric past, and the fact that many peaceful,
non-military societies have and still do exist.
Originally, war likely consisted of small-scale raiding.
Since the rise of the state some 5000 years ago,
military activity has occurred over much of the globe.
The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of
technological advances led to modern warfare.
Since the close of the
Vietnam War, the ideas expounded by the Prussian
military theorist Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) have
come to thoroughly permeate American military writing,
doctrinal, theoretical, and historical. His book
On War, first published (as
Vom Kriege) in 1832, was adopted as a key
text at the Naval War College in 1976, the Air War
College in 1978, the Army War College in 1981. It has
always been central at the U.S. Army's School for
Advanced Military Studies at Leavenworth (founded in
1983). The U.S. Marine Corps's brilliant little
philosophical field manual
FMFM 1: Warfighting (1989) is essentially a
distillation of On War, and the newer Marine
Corps Doctrinal Publications (MCDPs,
c.1997) are equally reflective of Clausewitz's basic
This is not the first time Clausewitz has been in
fashion. Indeed, On War has been the bible of
many thoughtful soldiers ever since Field Marshal
Helmuth von Moltke attributed to its guidance his
stunning victories in the wars of German unification
(1864, 1866, 1870-71). Nor is it the first time that
individual American soldiers and military
thinkers have been attracted by his ideas: George
Patton, Albert Wedemeyer, and—especially—Dwight
Eisenhower were intensely interested in what he had to
It is, however, the first time that the American
armed forces as institutions have turned to
Clausewitz. While the philosopher had insisted that war
was "simply the expression of politics by other means,"
the traditional attitude of American soldiers had been
that "politics and strategy are radically and
fundamentally things apart. Strategy begins where
politics end. All that soldiers ask is that once the
policy is settled, strategy and command shall be
regarded as being in a sphere apart from politics."*2
The sudden acceptability of Clausewitz in the wake of
Vietnam is not difficult to account for, for among the
major military theorists only Clausewitz seriously
struggled with the sort of dilemma that American
military leaders faced in the aftermath of their defeat.
Clearly, in what had come to be called in scathing terms
a "political war," the political and military components
of the American war effort had come unstuck. It ran
against the grain of America's military men to criticize
elected civilian leaders, but it was just as difficult
to take the blame upon themselves. Clausewitz's analysis
could not have been more relevant:
The more powerful and inspiring the motives for
war,... the more closely will the military aims and
the political objects of war coincide, and the more
military and less political will war appear to be.
On the other hand, the less intense the motives, the
less will the military element's natural tendency to
violence coincide with political directives. As a
result, war will be driven further from its natural
course, the political object will be more and more
at variance with the aim of ideal war, and the
conflict will seem increasingly political in
When people talk, as they often do, about
harmful political influence on the management of
war, they are not really saying what they mean.
Their quarrel should be with the policy itself, not
with its influence.
Vom Kriege (IPA: [fɔm
ˈkʁiːgə]) is a book on
military strategy by
Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly after the
Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and
published posthumously by his wife in 1832. It has been
English several times as On War. On
War is actually an unfinished work; Clausewitz had
set about revising his accumulated manuscripts in 1827,
but did not live to finish the task. His wife eventually
compiled all the work and the final two chapters
Clausewitz never finished.
On War is one of the first books on modern
military strategy. This is mainly due to Clausewitz'
integration of politics and social and economic issues
as some of the most important factors in deciding the
outcomes of a war. It is one of the most important
treatises on strategy ever written, and is prescribed at
military academies to this day.
Carl von Clausewitz was a
Prussian officer among those baffled by how the
armies of the
French Revolution and
Napoleon had changed the nature of war through their
ability to motivate the populace and thus unleash war on
a greater scale than had previously been the case in
Europe. Clausewitz was well educated and had a strong
interest in art, science, and education, but he was a
professional soldier who spent a considerable part of
his life fighting against Napoleon. There is no doubt
that the insights he gained from his experiences,
combined with a solid grasp of European history,
provided much of the raw material for the book. On
War represents the compilation of his most cogent
Note: Clausewitz states that Napoleon's tactics were
not revolutionary at all and that Napoleonic Warfare did
not change anything greatly in military history. The
technology of weaponry for the most part remained
static, and new strategies weren't developed, but rather
Napoleon refurbished old ones, mixing them into one
The book contains a wealth of historical examples
used to illustrate its various concepts.
Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) figures
prominently for having made very efficient use of the
limited forces at his disposal.
Napoleon also is a central figure.
Among many strands of thought, three stand out as
essential to Clausewitz' concept:
War must never be seen as a purpose to itself,
but as a means of physically forcing one's will on
an opponent ("War is not merely a political act, but
also a real political instrument, a continuation of
political commerce, a carrying out of the same by
The military objectives in war that support
one's political objectives fall into two broad
types: "war to achieve limited aims" and war to
"disarm” the enemy: “to render [him] politically
helpless or militarily impotent."
The course of war will tend to favor the party
employing more force and resources (a notion
extended by Germany's leaders in World War One into
"total war"—the pursuit of complete military victory
regardless of the political consequences).
"You must not fight too often with one enemy,
or you will teach him all your art of war." –
Military strategy is the plan and execution of
the contest between very large groups of armed
adversaries. It involves each opponent's diplomatic,
informational, military, and economic resources wielded
against the other's resources to gain supremacy or
reduce the opponent's will to fight. It is a principle
tool to secure the
national interest. A contemporary military strategy
is developed via
It is as old as
society itself. It is a subdiscipline of
warfare and of
foreign policy. In comparison,
grand strategy is that strategy of the largest of
organizations which are currently the
confederation, or international
alliances. Military strategy has its origins before
Battle of the Ten Kings and will endure through the
space age. It is larger in perspective than
military tactics which is the disposition and
maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield.
Military strategy in the 19th century was still
viewed as one of a trivium of "arts" or "sciences" that
govern the conduct of warfare; the others being
tactics, the execution of plans and manœuvering of
forces in battle, and
logistics, the maintenance of an army. The view had
prevailed since the Roman times, and the borderline
between strategy and tactics at this time was blurred,
and sometimes categorization of a decision is a matter
of almost personal opinion.
Carnot, during the
French Revolutionary Wars thought it simply involved
concentration of troops.
Four authentic shipwreck beads (two large, two small) Elliptical tortoise beads French wire backs Includes certificate of authenticity Spice up your jewelry collection with something truly out of the ordinary. These romantic drop earrings feature striking tortoise beads with a flattering elliptical shape. The accent beads are extremely special, having been recovered from a possible pirate shipwreck 3000 feet deep in the western Mediterranean. A bead expert has dated these enchanting beads to the 18th century, believing they are the works of Venetian glass masters of that era.
Sterling Silver Neck Wire Sterling silver flattened ribbon neck wire with clasp Approximately 5-1/2? from front to back Wear your favorite pendant on this shaped sterling silver wire. With a flattering curved oval form and flat ribbon design, its simple elegance is the perfect showcase for your treasured jewelry pieces.
Multi Shell Bracelet Sterling silver bracelet with seashells Large toggle clasp closure Approximately 8-1/2?L, fits wrists up to 7-3/4? Gleaned from the sandy shores and partnered with elegant sterling silver, a medley of seashells defines this jewelry treasure. Each bracelet features a unique combination of shells including distorsio, cowry, olive, ark, and other favorite varieties.
Sterling silver ring with hand-set sundial shell (approximately ?? to 1?W) One adjustable size fits all Slip into something enchanting. Creamy hues swirl throughout this genuine sundial shell creating a rich, neutral palette that complements any ensemble. With a wide sterling silver setting and clever adjustable design, this artful accessory is the perfect marriage of coastal and contemporary styles.
Multi Shell Pendant Sterling silver pendant with seashells Approximately 4? to 4-1/4?L Fit for a sea goddess, this striking pendant features a unique combination of ark, ubonium, brown chula, and nassa clothrata shells. Set in a substantial silver base, they create a dramatic focal point for any ensemble.
Beach Glass Pendant Sterling silver pendant hand set with three beach glass nuggets Sturdy bail accommodates chain, cord, or omega up to �?W Pendant approximately 2-1/2? to 3-1/4?L (length varies) Hand selected beach glass brings the allure of the coast to this sleek sterling silver pendant. Just as you?d find strolling your favorite shore, no two pieces of glass are ever alike. Intoxicating colors and a fresh design make this a true standout piece.
Sundial Shell Pendant Sterling silver pendant with hand-set sundial shell (approximately 1? to 1-1/2?W) Large bail accommodates chain, cord, or omega up to �?W Like the favorite shell you saved to remember a coastal getaway, this piece is one to treasure. A one-of-a-kind sundial shell is hand set in heavy sterling silver to create this striking artisan pendant. Each time you look into its creamy swirls, this enchanting shell invites you to dream of your next island escapade.
Beach Glass Bracelet Sterling silver circle link bracelet with colored beach glass Large toggle clasp closure Approximately 8-1/2?L, fits wrists up to 7-3/4? Make a statement with the lively color and fresh design of this unique artisan bracelet. Gorgeous pieces of beach glass are hand set in sterling silver and joined elegantly for effortless movement and comfort. Circle links and a weighty toggle clasp complete the look with contemporary cachet.
The Remarkable Quest for the Greatest Shipwreck Treasure of the Civil War Era (Hardcover)by Priit J. VesilindCome along on the search for the greatest shipwreck treasure of the Civil War-era...This book tells of a remarkable ship and the equally fascinating story of the search for it by Greg Stemm and John Morris, two modern pioneers of shipwreck exploration. In the tradition Ship of Gold and Shadow Divers, former National Geographic Editor Priit J. has recreated the life and times of the fascinating SS Republic - used by the Union and Confederacy during the Civil War - and Stemm and Morris' arduous modern day hunt for the dual-wheeled steamer that was downed by a violent hurricane in 1865. Stemm and Morris, founders of Odyssey Marine Exploration, were driven by reports that the steamship's cargo, bound for Southern markets after the Civil War, included $400,000 in gold and silver coins. They knew the coins from the mid-1800s, if found, would be of heart-stopping value to today's collectors.In the thrilling discovery of the ship in 2003 by Odyssey Marine Exploration, the adventuresome partners found the fulfillment of their long-time dream: thousands of glittering coins strewn across the ocean floor.More than 51,000 coins have been recovered, creating tremendous excitement for collectors around the world. The total collection is valued at over $75 million - one of the most valuable collections of U.S. gold and silver coins ever found in a shipwreck. The rarest single coin brought to the surface is valued at more than half a million dollars.Now the fabulous tale of this Civil War-era shipwreck, hidden for 138 years on the ocean floor, is told for the first time in book form - in a thrilling nautical yarn of immense risk and even greater rewards.Hardcover: 320 pages Publisher: Shipwreck Heritage Press (August 21, 2005) Language: English ISBN: 1933034068For more information on the Lost Gold of the Republic, click here.
Patent Medicines, Bitters, & Other Bottles from the Wreck of the Steamship Republic. by Ellen C. Gerth Dive into this fascinating collection of Civil War-era bottles recovered from the SS Republic shipwreck! This new book is filled with an array of beautiful photographs and paired with compelling historical descriptions of the many varieties of bottles recovered from the Republic shipwreck, which was discovered by Odyssey Marine Exploration. More than 6,000 bottles, representing more than 175 different types, were archaeologically recovered from the Republic shipwreck 1,700 feet deep. Destined for New Orleans to replenish merchant's shelves just a few months after the end of the Civil War, the bottles represent a unique time capsule of 19th-century life.The stories of these incredible bottles speak to a time when virtually anything could be bottled, advertised and sold, many by manufacturers who clearly swindled the public with outrageous claims, and who got around prohibition laws by promoting high-alcohol content as medicinal. The amazing range of the containers and their often unusual contents - from bear-grease pomades to French perfumes, from hot-pepper sauces to beer and wine, from century-old peaches to quack medicines of all sorts - all convey a delightful and often quirky glimpse of a long-gone era. As the photos demonstrate, each bottle is a work of art in itself. Categories in Bottles from the Deep include patent medicines; bitters; wine, beer, & spirits; food bottles; hair products & beauty aids; and ink bottles. The author is Curator of Collections for Odyssey Marine Exploration. Her previous experiences include research and writing for the Smithsonian Institution, the National Geographic Society, and Time-Life Books. She lives in Tampa, Florida. The history and discovery of the SS Republic is richly detailed in Priit J. Vesilind's Lost Gold of the Republic: The Remarkable Quest for the Greatest Shipwreck Treasure of the Civil War Era (Shipwreck Heritage Press, 2005). Softcover: 112 pages Publisher: Shipwreck Heritage Press (August 2006) Language: English ISBN-10: 1-933034-07-6 Size: 7" x 7" (includes 97 color photos, 2 maps)
There's nothing like a hot cup of Joe before you set out on the day's voyage. Our Odyssey ceramic mugs come in navy with white accents or white with navy accents. Both sport the large Odyssey 'O' with 3 sails and will get you moving in style.> Ceramic mug with generous "C" handle 4 � inches tall Dishwasher safe
Authentic Treasure from the famous and historic SS Republic Shipwreck!This ceramic artifact is one of the distinctive decorative ink bottles recovered from SS Republic, a Civil War-era ship that sank in 1865 off the coast of Georgia. At one time it featured an ink maker's label and was sealed with a cork and wax, which long since vanished after years on the Atlantic seabed. Bottle retains its original glaze. Click here to learn about STRETCH PAY!
This 2 Reale replica men's ring was inspired by a rough-hewn silver "cob" coin recovered by Odyssey Marine Exploration's founders during the first deep-ocean archeological excavation of a colonial Spanish shipwreck.Research suggests the sunken ship discovered near Florida's Dry Tortugas was part of the 1622 "Tierra Firma" fleet bound for Spain with New World silver reales, also known as "cobs." These irregular-shaped pieces of silver were shaved from colonial silver bars, hand-hammered and crudely stamped with the Spanish seal and an assayer's mark. Like the recovered 2 Reale it replicates, this coin used in this ring is roughly the same size as today's nickel. Cast in fine .925 sterling silver and set in a 14-karat yellow gold band with elegantly ridged swirled shoulders, this regal piece of jewelry makes a timeless gift. Ring Size: 10
Wear an authentic and beautiful piece of a shipwreck!This hand-crafted pendant capped with an artistic silver bezel was created from a piece of antique glass carefully recovered from the SS Republic shipwreck nearly 1,700 feet deep.More than 175 different bottles were discovered on the Republic shipwreck site. Some did not survive the battle with the hurricane or were broken when the ship settled to the bottom of the sea 140 years ago. Each pendant comes suspended on a dramatic black leather cord, is packaged in a jewelry box and includes a Certificate of Authenticity.Own and wear your own piece of shipwreck historyImages are a representation. Each piece is individually hand-crafted, so no two pieces are exactly alike. Most SS Republic shipwreck glass pendants include light green to green glass. Pendants range from 1" to 1 ?" inch long. Leather cord is adjustable from choker to mid-chest length.Quantities are limited so order yours today.
It?s a treasure but you won?t need a map to find this exquisite hand-crafted pendant created with authentic shipwreck glass! 1? fused glass centerpiece set in sterling silver Pearl and garnet accents 16? sterling silver rollo chain Created with glass recovered from the famous Civil War era shipwreck SS Republic. Florida artist and trained marine biologist, Michele Palenik of Purple Cloud Studios created this stunning piece using hand-selected pieces of glass recovered from the shipwreck of the SS Republic, nearly 1700 feet deep. While many intact bottles, including perfume, preserves and patent medicines were recovered, some bottles did not survive the shipwreck. These glass fragments were recovered and are now part of this unique jewelry. Each piece is signed by the artist and comes with a Certificate of Authenticity, story card and is packaged in an SS Republic presentation box.
It?s a treasure but you won?t need a map to find this exquisite hand-crafted pendant created with authentic shipwreck glass! 2? fused glass centerpiece 18? pearl and gemstone necklace Created with glass recovered from the famous Civil War era shipwreck SS Republic. Florida artist and trained marine biologist, Michele Palenik of Purple Cloud Studios created this stunning piece using hand-selected pieces of glass recovered from the shipwreck of the SS Republic, nearly 1700 feet deep. While many intact bottles, including perfume, preserves and patent medicines were recovered, some bottles did not survive the shipwreck. These glass fragments were recovered and are now part of this unique jewelry. Each piece is signed by the artist and comes with a Certificate of Authenticity, story card and is packaged in an SS Republic presentation box.
It?s a treasure but you won?t need a map to find this exquisite hand-crafted pendant created with authentic shipwreck glass! 2? fused glass centerpiece Accented with citrine Decorative vine style toggle clasp 17? oval cable chain Created with glass recovered from the famous Civil War era shipwreck SS Republic. Florida artist and trained marine biologist, Michele Palenik of Purple Cloud Studios created this stunning piece using hand-selected pieces of glass recovered from the shipwreck of the SS Republic, nearly 1700 feet deep. While many intact bottles, including perfume, preserves and patent medicines were recovered, some bottles did not survive the shipwreck. These glass fragments were recovered and are now part of this unique jewelry. Each piece is signed by the artist and comes with a Certificate of Authenticity, story card and is packaged in an SS Republic presentation box.
It?s a treasure but you won?t need a map to find this exquisite hand-crafted pendant created with authentic shipwreck glass! 1? �fused glass centerpiece crinkle silk adjustable wire choker pearl and faceted black crystal accents Created with glass recovered from Civil War era shipwreck SS Republic Florida artist and trained marine biologist, Michele Palenik of Purple Cloud Studios created this stunning piece using hand-selected pieces of glass recovered from the shipwreck of the SS Republic, nearly 1700 feet deep. While many intact bottles, including perfume, preserves and patent medicines were recovered, some bottles did not survive the shipwreck. These glass fragments were recovered and are now part of this unique jewelry. Each piece is signed by the artist and comes with a Certificate of Authenticity, story card and is packaged in an SS Republic presentation box.