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What, When, Where, How, Who?  

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What, When, Where, How, Who?


Introduction, Important Definitions and Related Concepts:


An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. Distinct means distinguishable to the eye or mind as discrete : separate <a distinct cultural group> <teaching as distinct from research>. Existence is what is asserted by the verb 'exist' (derived from the Latin word 'existere', meaning to appear or emerge or stand out). Distinguishable means capable of being perceived as different or distinct; "only the shine of their metal was distinguishable in the gloom"; "a project distinguishable into four stages of progress"; "distinguishable differences between the twins" . Separate means to set or keep apart : disconnect, sever. Latin (lingua latīna, pronounced [la?ti?na]) is an ancient Indo-European language that was spoken in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Disconnect means To sever or interrupt the connection of or between: disconnected the hose. Sever means to put or keep apart : divide; especially : to remove (as a part) by or as if by cutting. Pronounced means strongly marked : decided <a pronounced dislike>. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most of the major languages of Europe, the northern Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and much of Central Asia. A language is a system of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the rules used to manipulate them. The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. A republic is a state or country that is not led by a hereditary monarch, where the people of that state or country (or at least a part of that people) have impact on its government, and that is usually indicated as a republic. An empire (from the Latin "imperium", denoting military command within the ancient Roman government) is a state that extends dominion over populations distinct culturally and ethnically from the culture/ethnicity at the center of power. In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the inverse of multiplication. Decide means to settle conclusively all contention or uncertainty about: decide a case; decided the dispute in favor of the workers. A family is a domestic or social group. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκ?ο?, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Indian or Indians usually refers to the inhabitants of India or, alternatively and completely differently, American Indians. A subcontinent is a small part of a continent. South is the direction along a meridian 90° clockwise from east; the direction to the right of sunrise. Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent. Iran, (Persian: ا?را?, ĭr?n?), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ج???ر? اس?ا?? ا?را?, pronounced [d?omhuɾije ?esl?mije ?iɾ?n]), formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia. In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. Southwest Abbr. SW The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due south and due west, or 135° west of due north. Central is situated at, in, or near the center: the central states. Symbols are objects, characters, or other concrete representations of ideas, concepts, or other abstractions. Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Ancient means having had an existence of many years. Civilization or civilisation is a kind of human society or culture; specifically, a civilization is usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the process of state formation, the practice of agriculture and settlement in cities. An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area. The term State can be used interchangeably with country. The word monarch derives from Greek monos archein, meaning "one ruler," which referred to an absolute ruler in ancient Greece. Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. Command is to direct with authority; give orders to. A government is "the organization, that is the governing authority of a political unit," "the ruling power in a political society," and the apparatus through which a governing body functions and exercises authority. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate,") generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance. Ethnic means pertaining to or characteristic of a people, esp. a group (ethnic group) sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the like. Power (sociology), the ability to make choices or influence outcomes, which is also power held by a person or group of people in a society. Mathematics (colloquially, maths or math) is the body of knowledge centered on such concepts as quantity, structure, space, and change, and also the academic discipline that studies them. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word α?ιθμ?? = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. Multiply means to increase the amount, number, or degree of. Greek (ελληνική γλ???α IPA: [elini?kʲi ?ɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [elini?ka] ?? "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,400 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. Variety means the quality or condition of being various or varied; diversity. A continent is one of several large landmasses on Earth. Earth (pronounced /???θ/) is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, in both diameter and mass. India (Hindi: भारत Bh?rat; see also other names), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत ?णरा??य Bh?rat Ga?ar?jya), is a sovereign nation in South Asia. The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. Persian (local names: ?ارس? [f?ɾ?si], F?rsi or پارس? [p?ɾ?si], P?rsi; see Nomenclature) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Persian Gulf states. Help means to give assistance to; aid: I helped her find the book. He helped me into my coat. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Islam (Arabic: ا?إس?ا?; al-'isl?m ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. The Persian Empire (Persian: ا?پرات?ر? ا?را?) was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia, western South Asia and the Caucasus. Eurasia is a large landmass covering roughly 53,990,000 km² which is 10.6 percent of the surface of the Earth. Geology (from Greek: γη, ge, "earth"; and λ?γο?, logos, "speech" lit. to talk about the earth) is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth. Science (from the Latin scientia, 'knowledge'), in the broadest sense, refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. Highland (geography), an elevated mountainous region. A society is a grouping of individuals which is characterized by common interests and may have distinctive culture and institutions. Complex means Consisting of interconnected or interwoven parts; composite. Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing/harvesting of plants, animals and other life forms. City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. Form (Lat. forma Eng. mould), refers to the external three-dimensional outline, appearance or configuration of some thing - in contrast to the matter or content or substance of which it is composed (compare with shape). Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Voluntary association, a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to accomplish a purpose. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to complete control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface, typically a region bounded by a closed curve. Greece (Greek: ?λλάδα Elláda, IPA: [??laða], or ?λλά? Ellás, [??las]), officially the Hellenic Republic [?λληνική ?ημοκ?α?ία (?lini?kʲi ðimokra?tia)], is a country in Southeastern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. Sociology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Greek λ?γο?, lógos, "knowledge" ) is the scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture. Quantity is a kind of which exists as magnitude or multitude. Structure is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. Space has a range of definitions: One view of space is that it is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move. A contrasting view is that space is part of a fundamental abstract mathematical conceptual framework (together with time and number) within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. Change denotes the transition that occurs between one state to another. In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. Natural means Present in or produced by nature: a natural pearl. A landmass is a large continuous area of land. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. Terrestrial planet, a planet that is primarily composed of silicate rocks. Solar means of, relating to, or proceeding from the sun: solar rays; solar physics. System (from Latin syst?ma, in turn from Greek ????ημα syst?ma) is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. In geometry, a diameter (Greek words dia = through and metro = measure) of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints are on the circle. Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of "how much matter there is in an object". Hindi (: हिन?द? or हि?द?, IAST: Hindī, IPA: [hɪnd̪i?] ) is the name given to an Indo-Aryan language, or a dialect continuum of languages, spoken in northern and central India (the "Hindi belt"), The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. Federal means of, relating to, or being a form of government in which a union of states recognizes the sovereignty of a central authority while retaining certain residual powers of government. A constitution is a system for governance, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity. Fifty means number. Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. Nomenclature refers to a set or system of names or terms, as those used in a particular science or art, used by an individual or community. Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto: د ا?غا?ستا? اس?ا?? ج???ر?ت, Persian: ج???ر? اس?ا?? ا?غا?ستا?), is a landlocked country that is located approximately in the center of Asia. Tajikistan (pronounced /t??d?ɪkɨstæn/ or /t??d?i?kɨstæn/; Tajik: Тоҷики??он, pronounced [t?ʤikɪs?t?n] or [t??ʤikɪs?t?n]), officially, the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷ?мҳ??ии Тоҷики??он) is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: O??zbekiston Respublikasi or ?збеки??он Ре?п?блика?и; Russian: Ре?п?блика Узбеки??ан), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia, formerly part of the Soviet Union. Gulf is a bay, usually referring to a large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea. Constraint means the state of being checked, restricted, or compelled to avoid or perform some action <the constraint and monotony of a monastic life ?? Matthew Arnold>. Control is used in a variety of contexts to express "mastery" or "proficiency": e.g. "Music students attending a master class are expected to have full control of basic skills such as rhythm and pitch". Data refers to a collection of organized information, usually the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises. An instruction is a form of communicated information that is both command and explanation for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted, or executed. Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. The meaning of life, a philosophical concept concerning the nature of human existence. Mental means mind, the collective aspects of intellect and consciousness. Stimulus means input to a system in other fields. A pattern, from the French patron, is a theme of reoccurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set. In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. Knowledge representation, the study of formal ways to describe knowledge. Arabic (ا??ع?ر?ب??ة al-ʿarabiyyah or just ع?ر?ب?? ʿarabī) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. In theology, monotheism (from Greek "one" and "god") is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God.




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