The Practical Mortuary Hilt Sword (SH2076) is built for the re-enactor. The basket is identical to that of the SH2004 but the blade is unsharpened, with 1/16� edged and a rounded tip, complying with the combat rules of many re-enactment societies. * Authentic styling * Great for re-enactors MEASUREMENTS: BLADE LENGTH: 30 1/2 inches OVERALL LENGTH: 37 inches WEIGHT: 2lb THICKNESS: .260
This quality sword cane by Hanwei features a heavily silver plated skull pommel and a black lacquered glass fiber stick. The 25 �� blade is forged in tempered high-carbon steel to a grooved triangular section for stiffness and has a needle-sharp point. The sword is released by operating a push-button latch at the ferrule. Alarmingly attractive! KEY FEATURES: * Fully functional * Collector quality * Excellent value MEASUREMENTS: BLADE LENGTH: 25 1/2 inches HANDLE LENGTH: 7 1/4 inches OVERALL LENGTH: 36 1/2 inches WEIGHT: 1lb 2oz THICKNESS: .35
A must for the hunting dog enthusiast and sword cane collector, this beautifully crafted cane features an exquisitely detailed silver bronze pommel and satin-finished rosewood stick. The 25 �� blade is forged in tempered high-carbon steel to a classic flattened diamond section with full-length fullers. The push-button release latch at the ferrule is unobtrusive and secure. KEY FEATURES: * Fuly functional * Collector quality * Excellent value MEASUREMENTS: BLADE LENGTH: 25 5/8 inches OVERALL LENGTH: 37 1/4 inches WEIGHT: 1lb 13oz THICKNESS: .21 inches
Long extolled as the pinnacle of rapier design, the �Spanish� or �Cup-Hilt� rapier undoubtedly combined style and function very effectively in 17th century Europe. The very best of these weapons featured beautifully pierced cups and pommels and CAS Hanwei has replicated these to perfection and combined them with an elegantly tapered high-carbon steel blade in our �Taza� rapier (the name comes from the French, who called this style �a la Taza�). A leather-covered scabbard is included. The matching Main Gauche again features a pierced guard and pommel in the same design as the rapier, with a fileworked blade in the Spanish style. A leather scabbard and belt frog are included. Specifications: Blade length: 12 1/4� Overall length: 18 1/4 Weight: 1lb Specs will vary slightly from piece to piece.
Our Roman Dagger (SH2139), or Pugio, replicates an original that survives in remarkably good condition in a European musuem. The classic broad, waisted blade is ridged and fullered for stiffness and lightness, and the full-width tang matches the profile of the grip. The decoration of the grip an scabbard, like the original, are decorated in a silver on black niello style. A perfect piece for Roman persona. KEY FEATURES: * Full-width tang * Replicates an original * Perfect piece for the collector MEASUREMENTS: BLADE LENGTH: 7 3/4 inches HANDLE LENGTH: 3 3/4 inches OVERALL LENGTH: 12 1/8 inches WEIGHT: 1lb THICKNESS: .400 inches
The Yari was an essential battlefield weapon of the Samurai and took great skill to use and maneuver due to its length and size. The yari by CAS/Hanwei is reminiscent of the ones of feudal Japan. The blade is a straight triangulated double-edged forged high-carbon steel with a deep fuller on the flat side of the blade. The tang of the yari is long to absorb the shock of a blow and the one-piece staff construction reinforces the durability of the spear. Our yari is modeled after the su-yari or �straight-spear� design. The shaft (ebu) of the yari is done in a deep black lacquer and has a flattened side at the bottom section for blade orientation. The fittings (koshirae) are of traditional design and make the yari aesthetically pleasing. The blade is constructed from hand-forged T10 high-carbon steel. The yari blade is carefully protected by a sheath (saya) and comes with maintenance kit for proper care. In both design and structure, the yari a great addition for those who train in sojutsu. KEY FEATURES: * High-carbon steel blade * Great addition for those who train in sojutsu. * Aesthetically pleasing MEASUREMENTS: BLADE LENGTH: 16 3/4 inches HANDLE LENGTH: 62 1/2 inches OVERALL LENGTH: 79 inches WEIGHT: 3lb 11oz THICKNESS: .410 inches
Due to demand, the Practical Pro Katana (SH2162) has an extended tsuka and a thicker and longer blade. The blades are constructed from hand-forged, high-carbon steel and are differentially tempered using a traditional claying method. The Practical Pro has a fine polish to it compared to others in the series. The tsuka is wrapped with synthetic black leather for its gripping characteristics and is double-pegged for safety. The saya is done in a deep black lacquer with a black Japanese cotton sageo. The fittings (koshirae) are done in antiqued black iron. The katana is stylized with a round Kuruma tsuba, which represents the �Wheel of Dharma,� symbolizing the Buddhist concept of the Noble Eightfold Path. For those interested in an economical katana that can stand the rigors of heavy cutting (tameshigiri), the Practical Pro is an excellent choice.
Korean swords have a long history and over the centuries have had a strong influence on other Asian sword styles, which can clearly be seen in our Korean Cloud Sword. Built on a blade of AISI 1566 high-carbon steel, the sword has both the handle and scabbard wrapped in genuine smooth-finished rayskin, providing a sword that is both very attractive and highly functional. Key Features: Forged High-Carbon Blade Genuine Rayskin Handle and Scabbard Historical Reproduction Specifications: Blade length: 26 �� Handle length: 9" Overall length: 37� Weight: 2lb 7oz Point of Balance: 4 1/2" Width at Guard: 1.12" Width at Tip: .91" Thickness at Guard: .27" Thickness at Tip: .14" Specs will vary slightly from piece to piece.
Our German Main Gauche uses the same button-operated blade trapper system as the SH1031 model. The chased steel hilt faithfully reproduces the detail of the original German museum piece, which dates from the middle of the 17th century. Ingenious spring -operated mechanism. Accurate replication of a museum piece Specifications: Blade length: 11 1/2 Overall length: 17 1/2 Weight: 1lb 6oz Specs will vary slightly from piece to piece.
The Main Gauche, or left hand dagger, was often used with the rapier, providing an added dimension in both offense and defense, and the �Schools of Fence� which proliferated in Europe during this period taught the use of the two weapons in combination. The Main Gauche would often match the Rapier in styling, while incorporating features which maximized the effectiveness of the piece. * Historically accurate * Perfect balance MEASUREMENTS: OVERALL LENGTH: 17 inches WEIGHT: 9oz
One of the rapidly growing arts within historical fencing societies is that of sabre fencing in the late 19th century Italian style, originating with fencing masters who were employed to train mounted troops in the effective use of military sabre. This particular sabre (SH2199) is based on an original used by Italian fencing master Salvatore Pecoraro. The hilt design developed by Pecoraro has been reproduced in our fencing sabre SH2199, with a stainless steel guard & a wire-wrapped imitation sharkskin grip. The high-carbon flex-tempered steel blade closely follows the proportions of the period and is button-tipped for safety. A replacement blade (OH2264) is available for the Pecoraro Sabre. KEY FEATURES:
Guiseppe Radaelli, 19th century Milanese fencer of the northern Italian school, is noted for the development of modern sabre play with a light, narrow-bladed weapon. Radaelli was a teacher of mounted troops and was concerned exclusively with the military use of the sabre. The Radaelli Sabre (SH2200) is replicated from an original piece with remarkable balance, durability, and swiftness. . The hilt design developed by Radaelli has been reproduced in our fencing sabre SH220, with a stainless steel guard & a wire-wrapped imitation sharkskin grip. The high-carbon flex-tempered steel blade closely follows the proportions of the period and is button-tipped for safety. A replacement blade (OH2264) is available for the Radaelli Sabre. KEY FEATURES:
A proponent of the French school of fencing, Alfred Hutton was a British fencing master that did much to modernize sabre technique as it was fenced at the time. Hutton is acknowledged for breathing new life into the sport of fencing after it had fallen into the category of anachronistic, esoteric activities. The Hutton Sabre (SH2201) is crafted after an original with a stainless steel guard & a wire-wrapped imitation sharkskin grip. The blade & hilt of the Hutton sabre are closer to the style of the true military sabre. The blade is somewhat shortened & lightened, with a rounded tip for effective training. KEY FEATURES:
The Side Sword (SH2203) was a military sword of the 16th & 17th century Renaissance period that also achieved popularity among civilians, due to its relatively light weight & quickness. It also had an advantage over its contemporary, the rapier, in having the ability to cut efficiently as well as thrust. Side swords were often the weapon of choice for sword & buckler fighting. Our Side Sword (SH2203), based on a German original, is a beautifully proportioned piece that balances very well. The "swept-hilt" affords excellent hand protection and the blade geometry makes for an outstanding performance in both the cut and the thrust. The blade is constructed of high-carbon steel and the wire-wrapped handle is beautifully ornate. KEY FEATURES: * Authentic Styling * Fully Functional * Beautifully Detailed MEASUREMENTS: OVERALL LENGTH: 37 3/4 inches WEIGHT: 2lbs 8oz
Based on models of 17 th century swept-hilt rapiers of Italian ancestry and combining the better features of several pieces, our Torino Rapier (SH2204) with matching main gauche (SH2207) is sure to become the standard by which all others are measured. The blades are made of forged high-carbon steel and are equipped with black leather scabbards. The guard has an ornate design with straight quillons to protect the hand and for wrapping the fingers around to increase functionality and one�s grip strength. This rapier and the matching main gauche blade produced from CAS/Hanwei are now interchangeable with the �Practical� blades (SH2255, SH2256), which are designed for safety in rapier sparring. Also available are antiqued versions of the Torino Rapier (SH2204N) with matching main gauche KEY FEATURES:
Based on models of 17th century swept-hilt rapiers of Italian ancestry, our Torino Rapier and matching Main Gauche exhibit the classic straight crossguard styling popular in this part of Europe. Available in antiqued(SH2204N), polished(SH2204), and now left-handed polished(SH2204L) versions.
All of our rapiers have stainless steel hilts, for reduced maintenance, and high-carbon steel flex-tempered blades. Our three swept-hilt styles (Solingen, Torino, Gustav) are available with hilts in both polished and antiqued finishes. The latter finish, developed by Hanwei, has allowed a museum-quality patina to be applied to stainless steel while the non-corroding properties of the steel are retained. This finish is extremely attractive and gives a very authentic appearance to the piece.
Forged High-Carbon Blade
Left Handed Guard Specifications:
Blade length: 36 5/8�
Overall length: 45 ��
Weight: 2lb 5oz Specs will vary slightly from piece to piece.
Based on models of 17 th century swept-hilt rapiers of Italian ancestry and combining the better features of several pieces, our Torino Rapier (SH2204) with matching main gauche (SH2207) is sure to become the standard by which all others are measured. The blades are made of forged high-carbon steel and are equipped with black leather scabbards. The guard has an ornate design with straight quillons to protect the hand and for wrapping the fingers around to increase functionality and one�s grip strength. This rapier and the matching main gauche blade produced from CAS/Hanwei are now interchangeable with the �Practical� blades (SH2255, SH2256), which are designed for safety in rapier sparring. Also available are antiqued versions of the Torino Rapier (SH2204N) with matching main gauche.
Based on models of 17th century swept-hilt rapiers of Germanic ancestry, our Solingen Rapier (SH2205) with matching main gauche (SH2208) is an excellent rendition of the timely originals. The blades are constructed of forged high-carbon steel and are equipped with leather scabbards. The guard has a beautiful design with S-curved quillons to protect the hand and for wrapping the fingers around to increase one�s grip strength. This rapier and the matching main gauche blade produced from CAS/Hanwei are now interchangeable with the �Practical� blades (SH2255, SH2256), which are designed for safety in rapier sparring. Also available are antiqued are versions of the Solingen Rapier (SH2205N) with matching main gauche (SH2208N).
War is the reciprocal and violent application
of force between hostile political entities aimed at
bringing about a desired political end-state via armed
conflict. In his seminal work,
Carl Von Clausewitz calls war the "continuation of
political intercourse, carried on with other means."
War is an interaction in which two or more militaries
have a “struggle of wills”.
When qualified as a
civil war, it is a dispute inherent to a given
society, and its nature is in the conflict over modes of
governance rather than
sovereignty. War is not considered to be the same as
genocide because of the reciprocal nature of the
violent struggle, and the
organized nature of the units involved.
War is also a cultural entity, and its practice is
not linked to any single type of political organisation
or society. Rather, as discussed by
John Keegan in his “History Of Warfare”, war is a
universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by
the society that wages it.
The conduct of war extends along a continuum, from the
tribal warfare that began well before recorded human
history, to wars between
empires. A group of combatants and their support is
army on land, a
navy at sea, and
air force in the air. Wars may be prosecuted
simultaneously in one or more different
theatres. Within each theatre, there may be one or
military campaigns. A military campaign includes not
only fighting but also intelligence, troop movements,
propaganda, and other components. Continuous
conflict is traditionally called a
battle, although this terminology is not always fed
to conflicts involving aircraft, missiles or bombs
alone, in the absence of ground troops or naval forces.
War is not limited to the
human species, as
ants engage in massive intra-species conflicts which
might be termed warfare. It is theorized that other
species also engage in similar behavior, although this
is not well documented.
Some believe war has always been with us; others
stress the lack of clear evidence that war is not in our
prehistoric past, and the fact that many peaceful,
non-military societies have and still do exist.
Originally, war likely consisted of small-scale raiding.
Since the rise of the state some 5000 years ago,
military activity has occurred over much of the globe.
The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of
technological advances led to modern warfare.
Since the close of the
Vietnam War, the ideas expounded by the Prussian
military theorist Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) have
come to thoroughly permeate American military writing,
doctrinal, theoretical, and historical. His book
On War, first published (as
Vom Kriege) in 1832, was adopted as a key
text at the Naval War College in 1976, the Air War
College in 1978, the Army War College in 1981. It has
always been central at the U.S. Army's School for
Advanced Military Studies at Leavenworth (founded in
1983). The U.S. Marine Corps's brilliant little
philosophical field manual
FMFM 1: Warfighting (1989) is essentially a
distillation of On War, and the newer Marine
Corps Doctrinal Publications (MCDPs,
c.1997) are equally reflective of Clausewitz's basic
This is not the first time Clausewitz has been in
fashion. Indeed, On War has been the bible of
many thoughtful soldiers ever since Field Marshal
Helmuth von Moltke attributed to its guidance his
stunning victories in the wars of German unification
(1864, 1866, 1870-71). Nor is it the first time that
individual American soldiers and military
thinkers have been attracted by his ideas: George
Patton, Albert Wedemeyer, and—especially—Dwight
Eisenhower were intensely interested in what he had to
It is, however, the first time that the American
armed forces as institutions have turned to
Clausewitz. While the philosopher had insisted that war
was "simply the expression of politics by other means,"
the traditional attitude of American soldiers had been
that "politics and strategy are radically and
fundamentally things apart. Strategy begins where
politics end. All that soldiers ask is that once the
policy is settled, strategy and command shall be
regarded as being in a sphere apart from politics."*2
The sudden acceptability of Clausewitz in the wake of
Vietnam is not difficult to account for, for among the
major military theorists only Clausewitz seriously
struggled with the sort of dilemma that American
military leaders faced in the aftermath of their defeat.
Clearly, in what had come to be called in scathing terms
a "political war," the political and military components
of the American war effort had come unstuck. It ran
against the grain of America's military men to criticize
elected civilian leaders, but it was just as difficult
to take the blame upon themselves. Clausewitz's analysis
could not have been more relevant:
The more powerful and inspiring the motives for
war,... the more closely will the military aims and
the political objects of war coincide, and the more
military and less political will war appear to be.
On the other hand, the less intense the motives, the
less will the military element's natural tendency to
violence coincide with political directives. As a
result, war will be driven further from its natural
course, the political object will be more and more
at variance with the aim of ideal war, and the
conflict will seem increasingly political in
When people talk, as they often do, about
harmful political influence on the management of
war, they are not really saying what they mean.
Their quarrel should be with the policy itself, not
with its influence.
Vom Kriege (IPA: [fɔm
ˈkʁiːgə]) is a book on
military strategy by
Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly after the
Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and
published posthumously by his wife in 1832. It has been
English several times as On War. On
War is actually an unfinished work; Clausewitz had
set about revising his accumulated manuscripts in 1827,
but did not live to finish the task. His wife eventually
compiled all the work and the final two chapters
Clausewitz never finished.
On War is one of the first books on modern
military strategy. This is mainly due to Clausewitz'
integration of politics and social and economic issues
as some of the most important factors in deciding the
outcomes of a war. It is one of the most important
treatises on strategy ever written, and is prescribed at
military academies to this day.
Carl von Clausewitz was a
Prussian officer among those baffled by how the
armies of the
French Revolution and
Napoleon had changed the nature of war through their
ability to motivate the populace and thus unleash war on
a greater scale than had previously been the case in
Europe. Clausewitz was well educated and had a strong
interest in art, science, and education, but he was a
professional soldier who spent a considerable part of
his life fighting against Napoleon. There is no doubt
that the insights he gained from his experiences,
combined with a solid grasp of European history,
provided much of the raw material for the book. On
War represents the compilation of his most cogent
Note: Clausewitz states that Napoleon's tactics were
not revolutionary at all and that Napoleonic Warfare did
not change anything greatly in military history. The
technology of weaponry for the most part remained
static, and new strategies weren't developed, but rather
Napoleon refurbished old ones, mixing them into one
The book contains a wealth of historical examples
used to illustrate its various concepts.
Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) figures
prominently for having made very efficient use of the
limited forces at his disposal.
Napoleon also is a central figure.
Among many strands of thought, three stand out as
essential to Clausewitz' concept:
War must never be seen as a purpose to itself,
but as a means of physically forcing one's will on
an opponent ("War is not merely a political act, but
also a real political instrument, a continuation of
political commerce, a carrying out of the same by
The military objectives in war that support
one's political objectives fall into two broad
types: "war to achieve limited aims" and war to
"disarm” the enemy: “to render [him] politically
helpless or militarily impotent."
The course of war will tend to favor the party
employing more force and resources (a notion
extended by Germany's leaders in World War One into
"total war"—the pursuit of complete military victory
regardless of the political consequences).
"You must not fight too often with one enemy,
or you will teach him all your art of war." –
Military strategy is the plan and execution of
the contest between very large groups of armed
adversaries. It involves each opponent's diplomatic,
informational, military, and economic resources wielded
against the other's resources to gain supremacy or
reduce the opponent's will to fight. It is a principle
tool to secure the
national interest. A contemporary military strategy
is developed via
It is as old as
society itself. It is a subdiscipline of
warfare and of
foreign policy. In comparison,
grand strategy is that strategy of the largest of
organizations which are currently the
confederation, or international
alliances. Military strategy has its origins before
Battle of the Ten Kings and will endure through the
space age. It is larger in perspective than
military tactics which is the disposition and
maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield.
Military strategy in the 19th century was still
viewed as one of a trivium of "arts" or "sciences" that
govern the conduct of warfare; the others being
tactics, the execution of plans and manœuvering of
forces in battle, and
logistics, the maintenance of an army. The view had
prevailed since the Roman times, and the borderline
between strategy and tactics at this time was blurred,
and sometimes categorization of a decision is a matter
of almost personal opinion.
Carnot, during the
French Revolutionary Wars thought it simply involved
concentration of troops.