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War is the reciprocal and violent application of force between hostile political entities aimed at bringing about a desired political end-state via armed conflict. In his seminal work, On War, Carl Von Clausewitz calls war the "continuation of political intercourse, carried on with other means."[1] War is an interaction in which two or more militaries have a “struggle of wills”.[2] When qualified as a civil war, it is a dispute inherent to a given society, and its nature is in the conflict over modes of governance rather than sovereignty. War is not considered to be the same as mere occupation, murder or genocide because of the reciprocal nature of the violent struggle, and the organized nature of the units involved.

War is also a cultural entity, and its practice is not linked to any single type of political organisation or society. Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his “History Of Warfare”, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. [3] The conduct of war extends along a continuum, from the almost universal tribal warfare that began well before recorded human history, to wars between city states, nations, or empires. A group of combatants and their support is called an army on land, a navy at sea, and air force in the air. Wars may be prosecuted simultaneously in one or more different theatres. Within each theatre, there may be one or more consecutive military campaigns. A military campaign includes not only fighting but also intelligence, troop movements, supplies, propaganda, and other components. Continuous conflict is traditionally called a battle, although this terminology is not always fed to conflicts involving aircraft, missiles or bombs alone, in the absence of ground troops or naval forces.

War is not limited to the human species, as ants engage in massive intra-species conflicts which might be termed warfare. It is theorized that other species also engage in similar behavior, although this is not well documented. [4][5][6]



[edit] History of war

Main article: History of war

Some believe war has always been with us; others stress the lack of clear evidence that war is not in our prehistoric past, and the fact that many peaceful, non-military societies have and still do exist.

Originally, war likely consisted of small-scale raiding. Since the rise of the state some 5000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe. The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare.

Since the close of the Vietnam War, the ideas expounded by the Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) have come to thoroughly permeate American military writing, doctrinal, theoretical, and historical. His book On War, first published (as Vom Kriege) in 1832, was adopted as a key text at the Naval War College in 1976, the Air War College in 1978, the Army War College in 1981. It has always been central at the U.S. Army's School for Advanced Military Studies at Leavenworth (founded in 1983). The U.S. Marine Corps's brilliant little philosophical field manual FMFM 1: Warfighting (1989) is essentially a distillation of On War, and the newer Marine Corps Doctrinal Publications (MCDPs, c.1997) are equally reflective of Clausewitz's basic concepts.*1

This is not the first time Clausewitz has been in fashion. Indeed, On War has been the bible of many thoughtful soldiers ever since Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke attributed to its guidance his stunning victories in the wars of German unification (1864, 1866, 1870-71). Nor is it the first time that individual American soldiers and military thinkers have been attracted by his ideas: George Patton, Albert Wedemeyer, and—especially—Dwight Eisenhower were intensely interested in what he had to say.

It is, however, the first time that the American armed forces as institutions have turned to Clausewitz. While the philosopher had insisted that war was "simply the expression of politics by other means," the traditional attitude of American soldiers had been that "politics and strategy are radically and fundamentally things apart. Strategy begins where politics end. All that soldiers ask is that once the policy is settled, strategy and command shall be regarded as being in a sphere apart from politics."*2 The sudden acceptability of Clausewitz in the wake of Vietnam is not difficult to account for, for among the major military theorists only Clausewitz seriously struggled with the sort of dilemma that American military leaders faced in the aftermath of their defeat. Clearly, in what had come to be called in scathing terms a "political war," the political and military components of the American war effort had come unstuck. It ran against the grain of America's military men to criticize elected civilian leaders, but it was just as difficult to take the blame upon themselves. Clausewitz's analysis could not have been more relevant:

The more powerful and inspiring the motives for war,... the more closely will the military aims and the political objects of war coincide, and the more military and less political will war appear to be. On the other hand, the less intense the motives, the less will the military element's natural tendency to violence coincide with political directives. As a result, war will be driven further from its natural course, the political object will be more and more at variance with the aim of ideal war, and the conflict will seem increasingly political in character.*3

When people talk, as they often do, about harmful political influence on the management of war, they are not really saying what they mean. Their quarrel should be with the policy itself, not with its influence.

Vom Kriege (IPA[fɔm ˈkʁiːgə]) is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife in 1832. It has been translated into English several times as On War. On War is actually an unfinished work; Clausewitz had set about revising his accumulated manuscripts in 1827, but did not live to finish the task. His wife eventually compiled all the work and the final two chapters Clausewitz never finished.

On War is one of the first books on modern military strategy. This is mainly due to Clausewitz' integration of politics and social and economic issues as some of the most important factors in deciding the outcomes of a war. It is one of the most important treatises on strategy ever written, and is prescribed at various military academies to this day.



[edit] History

Carl von Clausewitz was a Prussian officer among those baffled by how the armies of the French Revolution and Napoleon had changed the nature of war through their ability to motivate the populace and thus unleash war on a greater scale than had previously been the case in Europe. Clausewitz was well educated and had a strong interest in art, science, and education, but he was a professional soldier who spent a considerable part of his life fighting against Napoleon. There is no doubt that the insights he gained from his experiences, combined with a solid grasp of European history, provided much of the raw material for the book. On War represents the compilation of his most cogent observations.

Note: Clausewitz states that Napoleon's tactics were not revolutionary at all and that Napoleonic Warfare did not change anything greatly in military history. The technology of weaponry for the most part remained static, and new strategies weren't developed, but rather Napoleon refurbished old ones, mixing them into one grand strategy.

[edit] Synopsis

The book contains a wealth of historical examples used to illustrate its various concepts. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) figures prominently for having made very efficient use of the limited forces at his disposal. Napoleon also is a central figure.

Among many strands of thought, three stand out as essential to Clausewitz' concept:

  • War must never be seen as a purpose to itself, but as a means of physically forcing one's will on an opponent ("War is not merely a political act, but also a real political instrument, a continuation of political commerce, a carrying out of the same by other means."[1]).
  • The military objectives in war that support one's political objectives fall into two broad types: "war to achieve limited aims" and war to "disarm” the enemy: “to render [him] politically helpless or militarily impotent."
  • The course of war will tend to favor the party employing more force and resources (a notion extended by Germany's leaders in World War One into "total war"—the pursuit of complete military victory regardless of the political consequences).

Military strategy is a national defence policy implemented by military organisations to pursue desired strategic goals.[1] Derived from the Greek strategos, strategy when it appeared in use during the 18th century[2], was seen in its narrow sense as the "art of the general"[3], 'the art of arrangement' of troops.[4] Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, and the deception of the enemy. The father of modern strategic study, Carl von Clausewitz, defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." Liddell Hart's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfil the ends of policy" Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals, ensuring civilian control of the military.



[edit] Fundamentals

"You must not fight too often with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war." Napoleon Bonaparte

Military strategy is the plan and execution of the contest between very large groups of armed adversaries. It involves each opponent's diplomatic, informational, military, and economic resources wielded against the other's resources to gain supremacy or reduce the opponent's will to fight. It is a principle tool to secure the national interest. A contemporary military strategy is developed via military science. [5] It is as old as society itself. It is a subdiscipline of warfare and of foreign policy. In comparison, grand strategy is that strategy of the largest of organizations which are currently the nation state, confederation, or international alliances. Military strategy has its origins before the Battle of the Ten Kings and will endure through the space age. It is larger in perspective than military tactics which is the disposition and maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield.[6]

[edit] Background

Military strategy in the 19th century was still viewed as one of a trivium of "arts" or "sciences" that govern the conduct of warfare; the others being tactics, the execution of plans and manœuvering of forces in battle, and logistics, the maintenance of an army. The view had prevailed since the Roman times, and the borderline between strategy and tactics at this time was blurred, and sometimes categorization of a decision is a matter of almost personal opinion. Carnot, during the French Revolutionary Wars thought it simply involved concentration of troops.[7]

The Battle of Siffin, illustration from a 19th century manuscript by Muhammad Rafi Bazil.

Strategy and tactics are closely related and exist on the same continuum.



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Price: 5.99

2004 Donruss Elite Football Box
Each 2004 Donruss Elite Football sealed box contains 20 packs of 5 cards each in a 200 card base set including 100 Rookies (#'d to 500). Each 2004 Donruss Elite Football box will contain TWO Rookies card and TWO Memorabilia and/or Autograph cards. Parallel set: Status (#'d to jersey number) and Aspirations (#'d to 100 minus jersey number). Inserts: College Ties (#'d to 2000) - Passing the Torch (Singles > #'d to 1000 - Doubles > #'d to 500 - Single Autograph > #'d to 100 - and Double Autograph > #'d to 50) - Lineage 1:20 (Double Autograph > #'d to 100 and Triple Autograph > #'d to 100) - Throwback Threads (Singles > #'d to 150 - Doubles > #'d to 75 - and Prime parallel > #'d to 25 - some Autographed) - Career Best (#'d to 1500; Jersey parallel > #'d to 250 - and Materials ''Year'' > #'d to last two digits of player's highlighted season) - Elite Series (#'d to 750; Jersey parallel > #'d to 250) - Gridiron Gear (#'d to 250; Silver parallel > #'d to 125 and Gold parallel > #'d to 25) - and Face to Face (Quadruple Face Mask cards > #'d to 125).
Price: 149.99

2004 Donruss Elite Football Pack
2004 Donruss Elite Football Pack contain 5 cards per pack.
Price: 4.99

2003 Donruss Gridiron Kings Football Cards Box
Each sealed box contains 24 packs of 5 cards each in a 175 card base set including 100 Veterans - 50 Rookies - and 25 Retired Greats. >>> Each box contains SIX Rookie cards and TWO Memorabilia and/or Autograph cards. Parallel set: Framed Portraits (Bronze - Silver > #'d to 250 - and Gold > #'d to 100). Inserts: Donruss 1894 (#'d to 1000) - Sportflix Gridiron Evolution 1:23 - Heritage Collection 1:23 - Royal Expectations 1:23 (Materials Game Worn Jersey version 1:30) - Gridiron Cut Collection (Signatures - Jerseys - Leather > #'d to 550 - and Combos > #'d to 50) - and Team Timeline (#'d to 1000; Materials Dual Memorabilia > #'d to 100).
Price: 79.95

2004 Donruss Leather & Lumber Baseball Box
Each 2004 Donruss Leather and Lumber Baseball Box contains 5 cards per packs and 24 packs per box. Highlights: Leather & Lumber Baseball is a 200-card set - including 150 veterans - 25 Rookies #?d to 500 (22 of the 25 will also be autographed) and 25 short-printed Black & White cards - #?d to 1000 or less. Each 24-pack box will be highlighted with an average of 4 autograph or memorabilia cards - 1 parallel and 12 limited edition inserts - including many with the look and feel of the tools of the game. Parallels will be offered in 6 levels - including regular and autographed versions - in Silver (#?d to 100) - Gold (#?d to 25) and Platinum (#?d 1/1). Memorabilia cards will include jerseys - bats - bat barrels - fielding gloves - batting gloves - shoes and baseballs - available in single and dual versions - all sequentially numbered to 250 or less. Look for Bat Barrel cards numbered to 5 or less and MLB Logo Material cards numbered 1/1.
Price: 99.95

2003 Donruss Leaf PlayOff Rookie & Trade Baseball Cards Box
Each sealed box contains 24 packs of 8 cards each in a 65 card D/L/P Rookies base set as well as new Rookie cards (including Weeks - Matsui - Nivar - Loewen - Webb - Haren - Gaudin - Wagner - Wang - Kuo - Willis - Bonderman - and others > some listed players are not in all sets) for Donruss Team Heroes (8) - Donruss Champions (8 > #'d to 100) - Leaf (9 > #'d to 25) - Playoff Prestige (10 > all Autographs) - Donruss Classics (10 > #'d to 1000) - Donruss Studio (10 > #'d to 1500) - Donruss Diamond Kings (10) - Leaf Certified Materials (8 > #'d to 250 or less) - Playoff Absolute (7) - and Donruss Elite Extra Edition (38 > #'d to 900). >>> Each box will contain any combination of FOUR Memorabilia and/or Autograph cards. Parallel sets: Donruss Stat Line Season/Career - Team Heroes (Glossy - Stat Line > #'d to player's season or career stat - and Autographs) - Classic Rookies (Timeless Tributes > #'d to 100 and Significant Signatures) - Absolute (Spectrum > #'d to 100 and Signatures) - Champions (Holo-Foil > #'d to 25 - Autographs - and Autographs Notations) - Studio (Proofs > #'d to 100 and Private Signings) - Elite Extra Edition (Turn of the Century > 'd to 100 - Status > #'d to jersey number - Aspirations > #'d to 100 minus jersey number - Gold Status > #'d to 24 - and Gold Aspirations > #'d to 1) - Leaf Certified Materials (Mirror: Red > #'d to 100 - Blue > #'d to 50 - Gold > #'d to 25 - Emerald > #'d to 5 - and Black > #'d to 1; and Signatures: Red > #'d to 100 - Blue > #'d to 50 - Gold > #'d to 25 - Emerald > #'d to 5 - and Black > #'d to 1) - Diamond Kings (Framed Portraits; Bronze - Silver > #'d to 100 - and Gold > #'d to 50) - Leaf (Press Proofs: Red > #'d to 100 - Blue > #'d to 50 and Autographs) - and Prestige (X-tra Points Purple > #'d to 50). Insert: Gamers Memorabilia (Base > #'d to 500 - Jersey Number > #'d to 100 - Position > #'d to 100 - Prime > #'d to 25 - and Rewards Autographs > #'d to 10).
Price: 114.99

2003 Donruss Baseball Cards Box
Each sealed box contains 24 packs of 13 cards each in a 400 card base set including 50 Rated Rookies 1:1 and 20 Diamond Kings. Inserts: Donruss Anniversary 1983 - Longball Leaders (#'d to 1000; Seasonal Sum parallel > #'d to 2002 HR total) - Production Line (#'d to player's specific stat; Die-Cut parallel > #'d to 100) - Recollection Collection Autographs - Diamond Kings (#'d to 2500; Studio Series parallel > #'d to 250) - Elite Series (#'d to 2500; Dominators parallel > #'d to 25) - Memorabilia cards 1:72 (Jersey Kings > #'d to 100 or 250; Studio Series parallel > #'d to 25 or 50 - Bat Kings > #'d to 100 or 250; Studio Series parallel > #'d to 25 or 50 - and Timber & Threads Jersey or Bat card > #'d to quantity produced).
Price: 49.95

2002 Donruss Classics Baseball Cards Box
6 Cards per Pack - 9 Packs per Mini Box and 2 Mini Boxes per Hobby Box 2002 Donruss Classics Baseball features 200 base cards including 50 Rookies and 50 Retired/Hall of Famers. The 50 rookies will be # to 1500 and packed 1 per Hobby box - the 50 retired wil be # to 1500 and also packed 1 per Hobby box! There will be a Timeless Tributes parallel of the 200 base cards # to 100! This product will also feature the newest stars from Japan - So Taguchi and Kazuhisa Ishii. Inserts will inclde: Hobby only Significant Signatures cards (1:18) - 60 New Millenium Classics game-worn jersey cards (various #) - 35 Legendary Lubmerjacks cards (various #) - 18 Legendary leather - Spikes & Hats cards (various #) - 30 ClassicSingles game-used cards (various #) - 20 Classic Combos game-used cards (various #) and Timess Treasure Ted Williams/Cal Ripken Jr game-used card (1:533 Hobby packs). Every box will included a game-used or autographed card - 1 # rookie &1 # Retired Player!
Price: 104.95

2002 Donruss Classics Football Cards Box
6 Cards per pack - 9 Packs per Mini box and 2 Mini Boxes per box. Base set is 200 cards including 50 rookies # to 500 each and 50 retired players # to 1000 each. On average each 9-pack minibox will deliver:1 Sequentially numbered Rookie card...1 sequentially numbered Legend (players like Montana - Namath - and Elway)....1 game-used memorabilia or autographed card. This means each display box contains 2 game-used or autographed cards - 2 # Rookies and 2 # Legned players.
Price: 94.95

2002 Donruss Diamond Kings Baseball Box
4 Cards per pack and 24 Packs per box. The hobby's original art cards finally has a set of it's own! Diamond Cut Collection-100 card insert features 30 Autographs - 50 Game Worn Jerseys and 20 Game Used Bats - overall rate 1 per box. Frame Potraits-Beautifully designed complete parallel that places Bronze - Silver (numbered to 400) and Gold (numbered to 100) frames over Diamond King's artistic masterpieces. Diamond Kings 150-card base set includes 25 Short-printed Rookies and 25 Short-printed Legends.
Price: 119.95

2003 Donruss Diamond Kings Baseball Cards Box
Each sealed box contains 24 packs of 4 cards each in a 175 card base set. Each box will contain ONE Memorabilia or Autograph card. Parallel set: Framed Portraits (Bronze 1:6 - Silver 1:24 > #'d to 400 - and Gold > #'d to 100). Inserts: DK Evolution 1:18 - Heritage Collection 1:23 - Team Timeline (#'d to 1000; Materials Dual Memorabilia parallel > #'d to 100) - Hall of Fame Heroes (Memorabilia parallel > #'d to 50) - Diamond Cut Collection (Signatures > #'d from 25 to 150 - Jerseys > #'d from 50 to 500 - Clubs > #'d from 50 to 500 - and Combos: Jersey/Autograph or Dual Jersey > #'d from 25 to 75) - and Recollection Collection Autographs (signed on previously released Diamond Kings cards).
Price: 74.99

2002 Donruss Elite Baseball Cards Box
5 cards per pack - 20 packs per box. All Game-Used and Autographed cards numbered to 150 or less. Bo Jackson/George Brett Throwback Threads - Lou Hehrig/Don Mattingly Back 2 Back Jacks-Double sided Jersey and abt cards feature great new pairings of baseballs biggest stars. Nolan Ryan/Roy Oswalt Passing the Torch Autographs-Two autographs - one card - representing the past - present and future of the Dodger's mighty legacy. Turn of the Century Autograph Rookie return - limited to just 100 of each Rookie.
Price: 69.95

2002 Donruss Football Cards Box
5 Cards per packs and 24 Packs per box. For 2002 donruss Football will contain 11-12 Rookies - 1 Stat Line parallel card and 1 insert card in EVERY hobby Box! The 2002 Donruss Football base set is 300 cards including 100 rookies inserted 1:2 packs! There will be 300 Stat Line parallel cards # to career and season stats! There is a great list of inserts including: Jersey Kings - Leather Kings - Elite Series - Elite Series Signatures - Elite series Legends - Elite Series Legends Signatures and more.
Price: 39.95

2002 Donruss Gridiron Kings Football Cards Box
Each sealed box contains 24 packs of 4 cards each in a 175 card base set including 50 Rookies 1:4 and 25 Retired Stars 1:6. Each box will contain ONE Memorabilia or Autograph card. Inserts: Team Duos - Donruss 1984 (#'d to 1000) - DK Originals (#'d to 1000) - Heritage Collection - Framed Portraits (Bronze - Silver > #'d to 400 - and Gold > #'d to 100) - and Gridiron Cut Collection (Signatures > #'d to varying quantities - Cut Leather Game Used Football > #'d to 550 - and Jerseys > #'d to 400).
Price: 79.95

2002 Donruss Baseball Cards Box
24 packs per box - 5 cards per pack. 50 Short Printed Rookies. 220 card set with 50 rookies and 20 Fan Club. Stat Line Parallel. Elite Series/Legends. Elite Series Legends Signatures. Longball Leaders - Diamond Kings - Studio Series Diamond King and much more. (This year has Diamond Kings and Jersey Kings with GAME USED Swatches inlaid!).
Price: 27.95



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